# The first section
# Rule 406
Here in this section, a Vibhatti is a form of verb-endings or verb-terminations to be applied after the roots in order to form a verb. In the nouns section, a vibhatti is a case-ending to be applied after the nouns. Note this distinctive role of two types of Vibhattis carefully.
There are eight group of Ākhyāta Vibhattis for all Pali verbs known as Ākhyāta. Each Vibhatti comprises twelve. This Sutta names the first pair of six which are out of that twelve, as the
parassapada group. They are :
- ti - anti
- si - tha
- mi - ma
# Rule 407
Of all the Ākhyāta vibhattis, the other six (out of twelve in each of the eight Ākhyāta Vibhatti) are called
attanopada. They are:
- te - ante
- se - vhe
- e - mhe
The Ākhyāta verbs are divided into two main groups: parassapada verbs and attanopada verbs. The purpose is to make a clear distinction between the two groups in terms of voice and the way they are used in a sentence. The voice of each Vibhatti groups will be explained later.
# Rule 408
Of all the eight vibhattis which have been grouped into six parassapada and six attanopada, a pair of two in each of those two groups, are called pathama purisa, majjhima purisa and uttama purisa respectively.
Among the first six parassapada vibhattis:
- ti and anti are called
paṭhamapurisā(The first person, i.e. third per son).
- si and tha are called
majjhimapurisā(The middle person. i.e. Second person).
- mi and ma are called
uttamapurisā(The * high person. i.e. First person).
Of (the next six) attanopada vibhattis:
- te and ante are called
paṭhamapurisā(The first person).
- se and vhe are called
majjhimapurisā(The middle person).
- e and mhe are called
uttamapurisā(The high person).
Note: This Sutta clearly sets out a pair of two in each vibhatti group to three persons (purisas) assigning each pair to their respective purisas. Please note it carefully because the assigned pairs of vibhattis are to be conjugated with their respective verbs and persons accordingly. Only when one correctly knows with what vibhatti and purisa (person) are to be used together, one will then be able to write and understand Pāli easily.
# Rule 409
When all two or three purisas (as possible subjects) specify the same action in a sentence, the last one is to determine the purisa of the sentence. It means that only relevant vibhatti and number that conforms to the last purisa (person, i.e. subject) shall be used in the verb when multiple subjects are involved in the same action (i.e. verb). Look at example sentences (a) and (b) shown below carefully. In (a), two different persons with their relevant verbs. In (b), only the last person’s plural termination “tha” is applied thus combining both. Purisa and vibhattis are shown in bold-faced letters.
# The three persons
The following three Sutta explain three persons, called
purisa, which are used in Pali grammar. Note them carefully as it is one of very important fundamental aspects of the grammar.
# Rule 410
When a noun (as a subject) is either directly present or implicit in a sentence which is of a
tulyādhikaraṇa (being appositional) nature, it is called
paṭhamapurisā (the first person).
- so gacchati = he / that person goes (both subject and verb are present)
- gacchati = (he) goes. (only the verb is shown, the subject is not shown)
# Rule 411
When a tumha (you) pronoun (as a subject) is either directly present or implicit in a sentence of
tulyādhikaraṇa, it is called
majjhimapurisā (The middle person, i.e. the second person).
- tvaṃ yāsi = you go (singular subject & verb)
- tumhe yātha = you (plural) go (plural subject & verb)
- yāsi = (you) go (subject is implicit, not directly shown)
# Rule 412
When an amha (me) pronoun (as a subject) is either directly present or implicit in a sentence of
tulyādhikaraṇa nature, it is called
uttamapurisā (the high person, “Uttama” means noble or high or the last.)
Note: Terming persons is a bit different from the English grammar. Here in Pali grammar, the third person is the first. The last person is the first in English grammar. Despite such minor differences, the role of each person remain the same in terms of actual usage in each language.
- ahaṃ yajāmi = I worship
- yajāmi = (I) worship (subject is implicit, not directly shown)
# The eight modes
The eight modes and tenses of Ākhyāta Pali Verbs, and when and where they are to be applied, are briefly explained.
# The present
vattamānā is used to express actions or events which occur at the present.
- pāṭaliputtaṃ gacchati = (he) goes to the city of Pātaliputta
- sāvatthiṃ pavisati = (he) enters into the city of Sāvatthi
Note: From this Sutta, see bold-faced letters such as “ti, tu” at the end of example verbs carefully. They are called the verb endings which have to be applied after the roots. (verb ending or verb termination refers to Ākhyāta Vibhatti)
# The imperative
pañcamī is used to express command
āsīsa at a non-specific time-frame mode
- kusalaṃ karotu = please do meritorious deed (command)
- sukhaṃ te hotu = may you be happy (wish)
# The optative
sattamī is applied to express permission
parikappa at a non-specific time
- tvaṃ gaccheyyāsi = you should go or you can go. (permission)
- kimahaṃ kareyyāmi = what I should do? (thought, thinking about what to do).
# The past perfect
The past perfect
parokkhā is to be applied to express things happened in one’s absence, in a situation where the speaker is not a witness to at a past
atīta time-frame mode.
- supine kilamāha = (He is supposed to have) said in the dream.
- evaṃ kila porāṇāhu = Ancient sages (are supposed to) have said thus
Note: Parokkhā = something which had occurred without one’s knowledge
“kila” is particle
nipāta used in indirect hearsay where the speaker is uncertain of truthfulness of what he heard or not a witness to the actual event occurred. Sometimes it means an asseveration or an emphasis.
# The past imperfect
The past imperfect
hiyyattanī is used to express events that took place in past time starting from yesterday, either being witnessed or not witnessed (by the speaker).
- so maggaṃ agamā = he went to the road.
- te maggaṃ agamū = they went to the road.
# The aorist
ajjattanī is used to express things happened in the near past starting from today, either being witnessed or not witnessed (by the speaker).
- so maggaṃ agamī = he has (just) gone to the road.
- te maggaṃ agamuṃ = they have (just) gone to the road.
Note: when the past imperfect, the aorist are used in the context of a particle
nipāta word “mā” (barring the action), they then assume all tenses, (mā = “do not”, a particle of prohibition). The imperative can also be applied (in the context of mā, assuming all tenses).
- mā gamā = do not go (the past imperfect)
- mā gamī = do not go (the aorist)
- mā gacchāhi = (you) do not go (the imperative)
# The future
bhavissanti is used in the expression of future.
- so gacchissati = he will go
- te gacchissanti = they will go
# The conditional
kālātipatti is used in the expression of an action that was past (without being materialized due to adverse conditions or lack of the supporting causes).
- so ce taṃ yānaṃ alabhissā, agacchissā = if he should have got that vehicle, he might have gone already.
- te ce taṃ yānaṃ alabhissaṃsu, agacchissaṃsu = had they got that vehicle, they might have gone already.
Actually, he/they did not have that vehicle (supporting cause absent, reason), and as a result, he/they did not go (action of going not materialized, the result).
# The eight verb terminations
Note: All verb terminations are clearly shown in the following eight Suttas. The students should try to familiarize with these terminations, twelve in each, by all means if they want to learn Pāli successfully and efficiently. These are the ending forms of Pāli verbs which need to be familiar at all times.
- ti - anti, si - tha, mi - ma, te - ante, se - vhe, e - mhe, all these twelve are called the present
- tu - antu, hi - tha, mi - ma, taṃ - antaṃ, ssu - vho, e - āmase, all these twelve are called the imperative
- eyya - eyyuṃ, eyyāsi - eyyātha, eyyāmi - eyyāma, etha - eraṃ, etho - eyyāvho, eyyaṃ - eyyāmhe, all these twelve are called the optative
- a - u, e - ttha, aṃ - mha, ttha - re, ttho - vho, iṃ - mhe, all these twelve are called the past imperfect
- ā - ū, o - ttha, aṃ - mhā, ttha - tthuṃ, se - vhaṃ, iṃ - mhase, all these twelve are called the past perfect
- ī - uṃ, o - ttha, iṃ - mhā, ā - ū, se - vhaṃ, aṃ - mhe”, all these twelve are called the aorist
- ssati - ssanti, ssasi - ssatha, ssāmi - ssāma, ssate - ssante, ssase - ssavhe, ssaṃ - ssāmhe, all these twelve are called the future
- ssā - ssaṃsu, sse - ssatha, ssaṃ - ssāmhā, ssatha - ssiṃsu, ssase - ssavhe, ssaṃ - ssāmhase, all these twelve are called the conditional
- In all three of the past imperfect, the past perfect and the aorist terminations, it is found a instead of aṃ, aṃ is assumed to be the correct text as it is more frequently found in the Pali texts, a is a morphologically changed form of aṃ.
- "Hiyyattanī, Sattamī, Pañcamī, Vattamānā", all these four vibhattis are called "sabbadhātuka vibhatti".
- "Parokkhā, Ajjatanī, Bhavissanti, Kālātipatti" are to be known as "asabbadhātuka vibhatti".
- The purpose of dividing into two groups is to make each group of verbs a bit distinctive from each other.
# The verb root
The students should understand the important role of the roots as they are the bases of the verbs on which verbs are built. There are three kinds of roots. They are:
single stem or one syllable roots such as:
- vā = to move
- yā = to go
- pā = to drink
dual-word roots such as:
- gamu = to go
- paca = to cook
- vada = to speak
multiple stem or three syllable roots such as
- vāyama = to attempt
- araha = to deserve
- kilisa = to torment
Note: Only the roots with a maximum of three syllables are found to be in use in the scriptural texts.
# The verb terminations
Before studying conjugation, it is necessary to understand various nature of vibhattis. There are three kinds of vibhattis based on their initials. They are:
- consonant-initial vibhatti such as ti, se, tu, ssati, ssā, etc...
- vowel-initial vibhatti such as anti, ante, aṃ, āmase, etc...
- complete-vowel vibhatti such as e, a, ā, ī, u, ū, etc...
- For consonant-initial vibhattis, just put the root before the vibhatti. It is quite easy.
- For the vowel-initial or complete vowels roots, delete the last component vowel of the root and only the last vowel-less consonant of the root should be attached to the vibhatti by placing it before a vibhatti.
# The form of Verbs
There are three factors which play an integral part in shaping the form of a verb. They are:
- the vibhatti,
- the component vowel of the root,
- the affix which is applied after the root.
It is quite easy to understand a verb by looking at the applied vibhatti (verb-termination) if the student knows all the eight groups of Akhyāta-vibhattis thoroughly well.
# Component vowels of the root
- For the roots comprising only an "a" such as paca (to cook), vasa (to dwell), and vada (to speak), there is not much difference in the shape of verbs as it has only one "a" in it. Therefore, it is quite easy and simple to form a verb using those roots.
- For the single-syllable roots with an "ā", it may retain its natural vowel sometimes. But that "ā" may sometimes change into an "āya" in most instances of verbs.
- For the single-syllable roots with an "e", it may keep its natural vowel sometimes. But that "e" may change into an "āya" in some instances of verbs.
- For the roots comprising either of "i, ī, u, ū" vowels in a root, regardless of being a single or a dual or a multiple syllable root, there used to be a slight change in the form of the verb. This happens due to a morphological process known as "vuddhi" and its follow-up procedure. According to this procedure, "i, ī" used to be changed into an "e". In some cases, "e" changes into an "aya" and even that "aya" further changes into an "āya" in some instances of verbs. For the roots containing "u or ū", it may change into an "o". In some cases, it may further change into an "ava". In some cases, it may still continue to change into an "āva".
- The single-stem root with “ā” : vā (to blow, to move). Here “ā” does not undergo any change thus retaining its natural vowel, e.g., Vāti (The wind blows). When this “ā” further changes into “āya”, a new verb form emerges, e.g., Vāyati (The wind blows).
- The single-stem root with “i” : ji (to win, to conquer). Here “ i” changes into “e”, e.g. jeti (he wins). When this “e” further changes into “aya”, a new verb form emerges, e.g. jayati (he wins).
- The single-stem root with “ī” : nī (to carry). Here “ī” changes into “e”, e.g. neti (he carries). When this “e” further changes into “aya”, a new verb form emerges as nayati (he carries).
- The single-stem root with “u” : su (to flow). Here “u” changes into “o”. This “o” further changes into “ava” resulting in a new verb form as savati (the river) flows. Hu (to sacrifice) : here “u” changes into “o”. This “o” further changes into “ava” resulting in a new verb form as havati (He) sacrifices.
- The single-stem root with “ū” Hū (to be). Here “ū” changes into “o”, e.g. Hoti (it is). Bhū (to be) : here “ū” changes into “o”. This “o” further changes into “ava”, resulting in a new verb form as bhavati (It is).
- The single-syllable root with “e” For the single-syllable roots with an “e”, it usually changes into an “āya” in most instances. Example, ge (to sing), e.g. gāyati (He) sings. jhe (to bum, to contemplate) e.g. jhāyati (The fire) bums or (he) contemplates.
# The Conjugation of Dual-syllable Roots
Of the three roots mentioned above, conjugation of the dual syllable roots is quite simple and easy for beginners to under stand.
Study the following example of the root “gamu” (to go). Note that the last component vowel “u” is to be elided as per Sutta No. 521 thus having the root-form as “gam” and consonant “m” of the root changes into “cch” as per Sutta 476. So, the steps of change for this root is =gamu>gam>gacch.
Example: gamu>gam>gacch-to go
- Now, let’s attach this root to consonant-initial vibhattis “ti, si and tha”. It is quite easy as there is nothing complex to do except to conjugate everything together.
- Gacch+a+ti= Gacchati (He) goes.
- Gacch+a+si=Gacchasi (You) go.
- Gacch+a+tha=Gacchatha (You, plural) go.
Note: An affix "a" is applied as per Sutta 445. When conjugating with vibhattis like mi, ma and mhe, follow the rule prescribed in Sutta No.478. The rule stipulates that the front vowel in front of mi, ma and mhe must be lengthened. So, it will look like “Gacchā”.
Now, let’s attach this morphed root-structure to “mi” “ma” and “mhe”.
- Gacchā+mi= Gacchāmi. (I) go.
- Gacchā+ma= Gacchāma. (we) go.
- Gacchā+mhe= Gacchāmhe. (we) go.
- Let’s attach this “gacch” to vowel-initial vibhattis “anti, ante, aṃ and āmase”. Don’t forget to remove the affix vowel “a” because one consonant can be combined to one vowels only, not to two vowels. So, we have to delete it be fore combining. Look at examples below carefully.
- Gacch+anti=Gacchanti (They) go.
- Gacch+ante=Gacchante (They) go.
- Gacch+am=Gaccham (I) went.
- Gacch+āmase=Gacchāmase (We must) go.
- Now, again, let’s attach this same thing to complete-vowel vibhattis “e, a, ā, ī, u and ū”. Remember that the same rule of removing the last component vowel applies. Also keep in mind that as per the rule set forth in Sutta No. 519, there should be an “a” in the front of verbs applied with ā, ī, ū, vibhattis. There can also be verbs without “a” as the rule is optional, not a consistent injunction. So, there will be two example of the verbs.
- Gacch+e=Gacche, (I) go.
- Gacch+a=Gaccha, (he) have gone.
- Gacch+ā=Agacchā, gacchā, (he) has gone.
- Gacch+ī=Agacchī, gacchī, (he) had gone.
- Gacch+ī=Agacchi, gacchi, (he) had gone. (When“I” is shortened as “i”) Gacch+u=Gacchu, (they) have gone.
- Gacch+ū=Agacchū, gacchū, (They) have gone.
# Sample combination of the roots with ākhyāta vibhattis
The following is a completely detailed form of various verbs conjugated with all eight Ākhyāta vibhattis. The sample verbs of each Vibhatti will be shown here so that the students will be able to try conjugating other roots with all of the eight vibhattis easily.
All the vibhattis, except Parokkhā, Hiyyattanī and Aiiattanī, are quite easy to conjugate with any root. However, it may be a challenge for the student to conjugate verbs using Parokkhā, Hiyyattanī and Ajjattanī vibhattis. But, with determination and practice, the student will find it a bit easy later on. Please note that the Verbs shown with this *mark are irregular-verbs different from their original vibhatti forms. Please see the explanations carefully so that students will not be confused with the irregular verb forms. It is recommended that any serious student who wants to learn and master the Pali efficiently should study these sample verb-forms repeatedly until they become quite familiar with all verb forms.
Note: The verb-forms shown below are plain verbs in the active voice mode which are easier for the beginners. For the Passive voice verb forms and causative verb forms, only a few samples will be shown. All detailed treatment of this subject are dealt within a separate book.
# THE PLAIN VERBS
# Active Voice
# Present Indicative
Root: gamu (to go). The “m” of the root changes into “ccha” (Re Sutta 476)
- (ti) Gacchati, *Gacche. (anti) Gacchanti, *Gacchare. (“anti” changes into “re” sometimes)
- (si) Gacchasi. (tha) Gacchatha.
- (mi) Gacchāmi, *Gacche. (“ti, mi” sometimes changes into “e”) (ma) Gacchāma.
- (te) Gacchate. (ante) Gacchante, *Gacchare. (“ante” sometimes change into “re”)
- (se) Gacchase. (vhe) Gacchavhe.
- (e) Gacche. (mhe) Gacchāmhe.
Note: Please note carefully that there is a dīgha “ā” in “mi, ma and mhe” vibhatti verbs, as per injunction of Sutta No. 478.
- (tu) Gacchatu, *Gacche. (antu) Gacchantu.
- (hi) Gacchāhi, *Gaccha (“hi” elided), *Gacchassu. (tha) Gacchatha.
- (mi) Gacchāmi, *Gacche (“tu, mi” sometimes changes into “e”). (ma) Gacchāma.
- (tam) Gacchataṃ. (antam) Gacchantaṃ.
- (ssu) Gacchassu. (vho) Gacchavho.
- (e) Gacche. (āmase) Gacchāmase.
Note: Please note carefully that there are three examples in “hi-vibhatti”, one without “hi” (Re: Sutta 479), the other with a “hi” and another with “ssu” function (Re: Sutta 571). Also note a dīgha in “mi, ma-vibhatti” verbs.
- (eyya) Gaccheyya, * Gacche. (eyyuṃ) Gaccheyyuṃ.
- (eyyāsi) Gaccheyyāsi, *Gacche. (eyyātha) Gaccheyyātha.
- (eyyāmi) Gaccheyyāmi, *Gacche. (eyyāma) Gaccheyyāma.
- (etha) Gacchetha. (eraṃ) Gaccheraṃ.
- (etho) Gacchetho. (eyyāvho) Gaccheyyāvho.
- (eyyaṃ) Gaccheyyaṃ, *Gacche. (eyyāmhe) Gaccheyyāmhe.
Note: Note the irregular verb form “e” in “eyya, eyyāsi, eyyāmi, eyyaṃ” vibhattis as these sometimes changes into “e” in the canonical Pāli texts.
# Past Perfect
- (a) Jagama, jagāma. (u) Jagamu.
- (e) Jagame. (ttha) Jagamittha.
- (aṃ) Jagamaṃ. (amha) Jagamimha.
- (ttha) Jagamittha. (re) Jagamire.
- (ttho) Jagamittho. (vho) Jagamivho.
- (iṃ) Jagamiṃ. (mhe) Jagamimhe.
Note: In this Vibhatti group, there is some reduplication of the initial word of root as per Sutta 458. See “ja” as the effect of this function. Also, in the Parokkhā, Ajjatanī, Bhavissanti, Kālātipatti vibhattis, there is an “i” behind the root of some verbs as per Sutta No. 516. To clarify this, see the verbs in ttha, re, ttho, vho, mhe vibhattis where an “i” is shown in bold. [See Sutta 467 “Kavaggassa cavaggo”, Rūpasiddhi Pāli grammar text].
- (ā) Agacchā-Gacchā, *Agaccha-Gaccha (“ā” shortened). (ū) Agacchū-Gacchū, *Agacchu-Gacchu (“ū” shortened).
- (o) Agaccho-Gaccho, *Agaccha-Gaccha, *Agacchi-Gacchi. (ttha) Agacchattha-Gacchattha, *Agacchatha-Gacchatha.
- (aṃ) Agacchaṃ-Gacchaṃ. (mhā) Agacchamhā-Gacchamhā.
- (ttha) Agacchattha-Gacchattha. (tthuṃ) Agacchatthuṃ-Gacchatthuṃ.
- (se) Agacchase-Gacchase. (vhaṃ) Agacchavhaṃ-Gacchavhaṃ.
- (iṃ) Agacchiṃ-Gacchiṃ. (mhase) Agacchamhase-Gacchamhase.
Note: Please carefully note that there are two types of verbs in each vibhatti, one with an “a” in front and the other without it. It is as per the rule set forth in Sutta No. 519, but is not a consistent pattern. Also note carefully that in “o-vibhatti” verb, there are extra two pairs of verbs: Agaccha-Gaccha, Agacchi-Gacchi which is seen frequently in the Pali texts. The vibhatti “o” changes into “a” or “i” sometimes. It is quite rare to see verbs in the original structure of “o” vibhatti in the scriptures. Instead, it is seen in changed state of “a” or “i”. Regarding this, there is a grammatical rule in Moggalāna Vyākarana which specifically stipulated that the “o” changes into either “a” or “i” or “ttha” or “ttho” by a procedure of Sutta named “Ossa a, i, ttha, ttho”. Also in Rūpasiddhi, a very well-known, highly respected grammar, it is said: “Kvacidhātū’ti ādina okarassa a-ādeso vā”. It means that by apply ing the function of “Kvaci dhātu” Sutta (No. 517), “o-vibhatti” changes into an “a” in some instances. Although two pairs of extra examples are shown, all the examples can be found in the scriptures.
- (ī) Agacchī-Gacchī, *Agacchi-Gacchi, (“ī” is shortened in this second pair of verbs). (uṃ) Agacchuṃ-Gacchuṃ, *Agacchiṃsu-Gacchiṃsu, (“uṃ” changed into “iṃsu” in this pair of verbs. Re: Sutta 504).
- (o) Agaccho-Gaccho, *Agaccha-Gaccha, *Agacchi-Gacchi, (See foregoing notes for explanation regarding irregular verb forms different from the original verb-form). (ttha) Agacchittha-Gacchittha.
- (iṃ) Agacchiṃ-Gacchiṃ. (mhā) Agacchimhā-Gacchimhā, *Agacchimha-Gacchimha (“ā” of mhā is shortened).
- (ā) Agacchā-Gacchā, *Agacchittha-Gacchittha, (“ā” changed into “ttha” in this pair of verbs and “i” is inserted). (ū) Agacchū-Gacchū.
- (se) Agacchise-Gacchise. (vhaṃ) Agacchivhaṃ-Gacchivhaṃ.
- (aṃ) Agacchaṃ-Gacchaṃ, *Agaccha-Gaccha, (“aṃ” changed into “a” in this pair of verbs). (mhe) Agacchimhe-Gacchimhe.
Note: Please note that there is an “i” after the root of some verbs in ttha, mhā, se, vhaṃ, mhe vibhatti-terminations as per the rule of Sutta No. 516.
- (ssati) Gacchissati. (ssanti) Gacchissanti, *Gacchissare.
- (ssasi) Gacchissasi. (ssatha) Gacchissatha.
- (ssāmi) Gacchissāmi. (ssāma) Gacchissāma.
- (ssate) Gacchissate. (ssante) Gacchissante, *Gacchissare.
- (ssase) Gacchissase. (ssavhe) Gacchissavhe.
- (ssaṃ) Gacchissaṃ. (ssāmhe) Gacchissāmhe.
Note: There is an “i” shown in bold, added after the root of all verbs in all Bhavissanti vibhatti-terminations as per the rule of Sutta No. 516.
- (ssā) Agacchissā-Gacchissā, *Agacchissa-Gacchissa, (“ā” is shortened in this second pair of verbs). (ssaṃsu) Agacchissaṃsu-Gacchissaṃsu.
- (sse) Agacchisse-Gacchisse, Agacchissa-Gacchissa. (The “e” of “sse” is changed into “a” in this second pair of verb-forms by Sutta 517). (ssatha) Agacchissatha-Gacchissatha.
- (ssaṃ) Agacchissaṃ-Gacchissaṃ. (ssāmhā) Agacchissāmhā-Gacchissāmhā. *Agacchissāmha-Gacchissāmha (“ā” is shortened in this pair).
- (ssatha) Agacchissatha-Gacchissatha. (ssiṃsu) Agacchissiṃsu-Gacchissiṃsu.
- (ssase) Agacchissase-Gacchissase. (ssavhe) Agacchissavhe-Gacchissavhe.
- (ssam) Agacchissam-Gacchissam. (ssāmhase) Agacchissāmhase-Gacchissāmhase.
Note: In the Kālātipatti vibhattis, there is an “i” shown in bold, after the root of all verbs as per rule of Sutta No. 516.
# Passive Voice
To build passive voice verb-forms, students should understand two mainly important things. They are:
- The passive voice verb forms are mainly Kamma-specific in nature. As such, they have to be in Kamma-specific vibhattis. This means that no other vibhattis, except Kamma-specific six Attanopada-vibhattis only can be used in the passive voice.
- Next, those verbs are to be affixed with Kamma-specific affixes only. This means that no other affixes can be used in the passive voice structure.
# The Kamma-specific Vibhatti and affixes
Out of twelve Verb-terminations in each of eight Ākhyāta vibhattis, only six Attanopada have Kamma (passive) and Bhāva (impersonal) voices. (Refer to Sutta 453).
However, they may be Kattu-specific sometimes. (See Sutta 454).
As for Kamma-specific affixes, only one “ya” affix applied by Sutta 440 is eligible to be used in the passive voice structure of Ākhyāta verbs. This basic rule is quite easy to understand and apply in the sentence structure. Therefore, Pāli is quite simple to learn.
# The Practical Method
- Begin with six attanopada Vattamānā Vibhattis.
- Use only “ya” affix.
Please note that the verbs affixed with “ya” have some distinctive forms which may be a bit challenging for the beginners. Therefore, only more simple structure and easy to build verb form will be shown here.
The formula of passive voice form is: (Try to remember) Root + (i or ī) + ya + relevant attanopada vibhatti. (4 parts).
Now, let’s start building verbs in the passive voice:
- Root: Paca = to cook.
- Affix: ya
Attanopada - termination (Kamma-specific)
- (te) Pacīyate. (ante) Pacīyante, *Pacīyare.
- (se) Pacīyase. (vhe) Pacīyavhe.
- (e) Pacīye. (mhe) Pacīyāmhe.
- (ti) Pacīyati. *Pacīye. (anti) Pacīyanti,*Pacīyare.
- (si) Pacīyasi. (tha) Pacīyatha.
- (mi) Pacīyāmi, *Pacīye (“ti, mi” sometimes changes into “e”). (ma) Pacīyāma.
Now, let’s try building the Passive Voice verb-forms using “the Parassapada vibhattis”. This is made possible by Sutta 518.
Please remember that these “parassapada” are actually “attanopada vibhattis” being reversed to look like “parassapada”, not the original ones. Therefore, the voice will still remain Kamma-specific (i.e. passive voice) though.
Also please know that the actual “Parassapada vibhattis” never signify the sense of Kamma in any way. They have only one voice of Kattu (active voice). Therefore, they are always to be used in the active voice only. This is an important grammatical rule to be remembered.
# Causative verbs
Like the plain verbs, there are two types of causative verbs. They are:
- Causative verb in the active voice.
- Causative verb in the passive voice.
To be able to build causative verbs and to understand them well, the students need to understand two things which are fundamental to the core structural pattern of a causative verb. They are:
- The causative affixes.
- Subsequent vuddhi procedures resulting from causative affix.
Note: This needs much study and practice.
# Causative Verb in the Active Voice
It will be explained here in a way as simple as possible for the students. First, there are four causative affixes which are mainly used in the causative verbs. They are “ṇe, ṇaya, ṇāpe and ṇāpaya”. Please refer to Sutta 438. It is also important to understand that “ṇ” has to be removed from all the causative affixes as per Sutta 523. There will remain only “e, aya, āpe, āpaya”. One of these affixes will be used in the sample causative verbs.
Regarding the vuddhi procedure, refer to Sutta 483. It may at first seems like a big challenge for a beginner. But, it is not that much difficult if simple guidelines are understood. The vuddhi procedure usually occurs in the initial vowel of the root if that is a two-stem root. As an exception, there are some roots such as jīva (to live), katha (to speak), kilamu (to be weary), which never undergo a vuddhi procedure in a causative or even in the plain verb forms.
Now, here is the formula of causative verb to remember: The root with an initial vowel being in a vuddhi + one of the four causative affixes + relevant vibhatti (3 integral parts).
Now, let’s work out that formula here:
The root: Paca = to cook.
See the table below. All the complex structural patterns of causative verbs are shown in the table in a very simple way.
- Vuddhi procedure in the initial vowel of the root "a" as "ā".
- the last component vowel of the root deleted.
- the component consonant "ṇ" of the affix elided.
Three important procedures
|Base Structure||After three Proce dures||The completed verb|
|Paca + ne + ti||Pāc + e + ti||Pāceti|
|Paca + naya + ti||Pāc + aya + ti||Pācayati|
|Paca + nāpe + ti||Pāc + āpe + ti||Pācāpeti|
|Paca + nāpaya + ti||Pāc + āpaya + ti||Pācāpayati|
# Sample Causative Verb in the Active Voice
Now, let’s start building causative verbs in the active voice:
Root: Paca = to cook.
- Affix: “ṇe”
- (ti) Pāceti. (anti) Pācenti (“a” of “anti” is deleted)
- (si) Pācesi. (tha) Pācetha.
- (mi) Pācemi. (ma) Pācema. (No dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”)
- Affix: “ṇaya”
- (ti) Pācayati. (anti) Pācayanti (“a” of “anti” is deleted).
- (si) Pācayasi. (tha) Pācayatha.
- (mi) Pācayāmi. (ma) Pācayāma. [Dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”]
Note: In verbs with 3rd and 4th affixes, there can be some verb forms with no vuddhi function occurred on the initial vowel. So, two examples of verb forms are shown below.
- Affix: “ṇāpe”
- (ti) Pācāpeti, pacāpeti. (anti) Pācāpenti, pacāpenti.
- (si) Pācāpesi, pacāpesi. (tha) Pācāpetha, pacāpetha.
- (mi) Pācāpemi, pacāpemi. (ma) Pācāpema, pacāpema. (No dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”)
- Affix: “ṇāpaya”
(ti) Pācāpayati, pacāpayati. (anti) Pācāpayanti, pacāpayanti. (si) Pācāpayasi, pacāpayasi. (tha) Pācāpayatha, pacāpayatha. (mi) Pācāpayāmi, pacāpayāmi. (ma) Pācāpayāma, pacāpayāma. [Dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”]
Note: Please note that verbs in “ṇe and ṇāpe” affixes are slightly similar to each other while verbs in “ṇaya and ṇāpaya” affixes share some similar morphological traits.
# Causative Verb in the Passive Voice
This too may be a bit challenging. But remember that it is very much similar to the plain verbs in respect of the passive voice structural pattern. It only needs to insert one more affix “ya” signifying the Kamma (passive voice). Here is one thing to be mindful that not all causative affixes are used in the passive voice structure. Only a few causative affixes, mostly “ṇe” and “ṇāpe” are found to be used in the Pāli literature. This does not mean that the remaining ones are not used at all. There could be some instances of usage. Please note that in the passive voice causative verbs, there used to be two or sometimes even three affixes though some traces of the causative affixes are not easily noticeable.
Here is the formula to remember: the root with an initial vowel being a vuddhi + (e or āpe) + (i or ī) + ya + the relevant Vibhatti. (5 integral parts)
Now, let’s practically work out that formula here:
- The root: Paca = to cook
- Affix: (ṇe or ṇāpe) + ya.
Assume that all three basic procedures have already been done. So, it will be:
- Pāca+e+i+ya+ti > Pāciyati. (The trace of causative affix unnoticeable in this verb with the “ṇe” affix, as its residual vowel “e” is already absent except a vuddhi vowel “ā” representing it)
- Pāca+āpe+i+ya+ti > Pācāpiyati. (The trace of causative affix is slightly noticeable in this verb with the “ṇāpe” affix)
Verbs with affix: “ṇe”
- (ti) Pāciyati. (anti) Pāciyanti.
- (si) Pāciyasi. (tha) Pāciyatha.
- (mi) Pāciyāmi. (ma) Pāciyāma. (Dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”)
Verbs with affix: “ṇāpe”
- (ti) Pācāpiyati. (anti) Pācāpiyanti.
- (si) Pācāpiyasi. (tha) Pācāpiyatha.
- (mi) Pācāpiyāmi. (ma) Pācāpiyāma. (Dīgha procedure in “mi & ma”)
Note: These samples are to orient the student with the basic causative verb forms. It is important to study and familiarize with these sample verb forms as explained here.
# The basic pāli sentence structure
Based on conjugation of the verbs and various verb-forms which have been explained thus far in some detail, some basic sentence structure and the relevant rules will be explained here for the benefit of all serious students of the Pali grammar. There are, as a matter of the grammatical fact stated in Suttas, three voices in the Pali grammar. They are:
(a) the active voice (Kattu), (b) the passive voice (Kamma) (c) the impersonal voice (Bhāva).
Of the three, Bhāva voice is rarely used in the actual usage of Pali texts and a wider area of the Pali literature except in the etymological definition of words in the Pali grammar and some instances of the commentary and subcommentary texts where some detailed and delicate explanation is necessary regarding a word or a phrase. Even in this Kaccāyana’s grammar, especially in Kita and Unādi chapters, Bhāva voice known as Bhāva Sādhana is widely applied to explain some etymological definition of the example words using either an Ākhyāta verb or a Kita verb of bhāva sense and voice. Only active and passive voices are used in the majority of written Pāli texts. Therefore, fundamental rules and the writing-method of these two voices only will be explained.
# The Rules of Active Voice Sentence
An active voice sentence is called in grammatical parlance as “Kattu-vācaka Vākya” which means the subject-principal sentence where Kattā (the agent, doer subject) is much more dominant. Such a subject is called “Kathita Kattā” or “Vutta-kattā” which means a predominant-subject. The object (Kamma) in such a sentence plays a secondary role. Hence it is called an “Akathita-kamma” or “Avutta-kamma” which means a non-principal object.
Here are the rules of an active voice sentence:
- The subject must be in the nominative case.
- The object has to be in the accusative case.
- The verb must be either in the parassapada-termination in most cases or in the attanopada-termination with or without an affix of Kattu-sense. But affixes of Kamma sense such as ya, tabba, ta, etc. are absolutely inapplicable. (Tabba & Ta are Kita affixes not to be used with Ākhyāta verbs)
- The persons (subjects) and verbs should be concordant.
Note: The rule numbers 3 and 4, are not required when writing active voice sentences using Kita verbs and Kita affixes of Kattu-sense or past perfect such as “ta”. (Refer to Sutta 555,557).
Formula: Subject + Object + Verb [S+V+O is possible and permissible although ma jority style is S+O+V]
- Buddho(S) dhammaṃ(O) deseti(V) = Buddha teaches the Dhamma.
- Buddha(S) dhammaṃ(O) desenti(V) = Buddhas teach the Dhamma.
Please note that all the relevant subjects (persons), verbs and their numbers are to be in perfect agreement.
# The Rules of Passive Voice Sentence
A passive voice sentence is called in grammatical parlance as “Kamma-vācaka Vākya” which means the object-principal sentence where the Kamma (the thing being done, the object) is more visibly dominant by being in the nominative case. Such an object is called “Kathita Kamma” or “Vutta-kamma” which means the predominant-object. The subject (Kattā) in such a sentence is called an “Akathita-kattā” or an “Avutta-kattā” which means the non-principal subject.
The rules in a passive voice sentence are:
- The subject has to be in the instrumental case.
- The object has to be in the nominative case.
- The verb should be mainly in the attanopada-termination or it can be in a reversed Parassapada form with an affix which has a Kamma-sense only. (Refer to the verb and verb-forms shown in Suttas 440,441 442 and 443. The easiest verb-form to use is the type of verb affixed with a “ya” preceded by either an inserted “i” or “ī”.)
- The object (not the subject!) and verb should be in agreement.
Note: The rule number four is a major distinction of Sanskrit and Pali passive voice sentences which is different from other grammars of modem languages such as English. In Sanskrit and Pali grammar, the subject is dominant in the active voice. In the passive voice sentence, the object is dominant. So, the verb has to follow them accordingly. In English grammar, the subject is more emphasized in both active and passive voices. Therefore, the subject and verb are to be in perfect agreement with each other in both voices.
- Purisena odano pacīyate = The rice is cooked by man
- Purisehi odano pacīyate = The rice is cooked by men
- Rājena tvam dīyase = By king, you are given
- Rājena tumhe dīyavhe = By king, you (plural) are given
# The impersonal voice
Q: What does an impersonal voice (Bhāva) sentence looks like in terms of the sentence structure?
A: It is much more like a passive voice sentence in the structural pattern except that it conveys a Bhāva sense of expressing just mere action. Neither the doer (subject) nor the thing being done (Kamma) is in fact implied as a principal focus or the subject matter of the sentence.
The Applicable Person and Number
According to the most Venerable Buddhapiyācariya, the great grammarian of Rūpasiddhi Vyākaraṇa Pāli grammar, it is said that in a Bhāva (impersonal voice) sentence, only the paṭhama purisa (third person), singular number is applicable. No other (purisa) persons are applicable because Bhāva itself singularly signifies just mere action, not any materiality nor the physical tangibility of any sort as implied by the relevant roots of the verb.
# The sample sentences of impersonal voice
- (1) Devadattena (Devadatta, the subject) bhūyate. [bhū: to be] (by Devadatta, became, i.e. Devadatta’s being)
- (2) Pabbatena (the mountain, the subject) ṭhīyate. [ṭhā: to stand] (by the mountain, standing, i.e. The mountain’s standing)
- (3) Purisena (by man, the subject) kathīyate. [katha: to speak] (by the man, said. i.e. The man speaks, or man’s speaking)
Note: Please note that strictly there is no applicable Kamma word (the object) in an impersonal voice sentence though it cannot be ruled out the likely presence of a Kamma word in a verb with sakammaka roots (transitive verb) of a Bhāva structure.
Sometimes, genitive case is also found to be employed in place of a subject in some Pali writings although it is not a consistent pattern. For example, Kaccāyana Vyākarana, Sutta No. 556: “Bhāve tāva, Tassa Gītam” etc. Here genitive case is used in the context of a Kita verb to signify a Bhāva voice and most possibly “the mere action”.
# Sample causative sentence
There are four integral parts in a causative sentence. They are:
- Causative subject (grammatically known as Hetu-kattā, or Payojaka-kattā, the prompter or the mover, abbreviated as CS).
- Subordinate Object (also called Karita-kamma, causative object, CO).
- The root-object (also called dhātu-kamma, the object of the root which has direct connection to the root in terms of having direct relationship with the meaning of the root, RO)
- The causative verb, CV.
Note that there used to be two objects in an ordinary causative sentence although sometimes there may be some more additional objects depending on nature of the root. For example, if the root is a dual-kamma-indicative root (dvikammaka) such as nī (to carry), duha (to milk), then there can be three objects.
Now, here is a sample of a normal causative sentence:
|Causative Subject (nominative)||Subordinate Object (accusative)||The root- object (accusative)||Causative Verb (one causative affix||Meaning|
|Puriso (cs) the man||purisaṃ (co) to the other man||odanaṃ (ro) the rice||pāceti (cv) causes to cook||Man causes the other man to cook the rice.|
|Purisā (cs) the men||purise (co) to the other men||odanaṃ (ro) the rice||pācenti (cv) cause to cook||Men cause the other men to cook the rice.|
This is a very simple causative sentence which is quite easy to understand. It is hoped that all the explanation given regarding the verbs and basic types of Pali sentence structures thus far is sufficient for all keen students at this point to make the study of the next sections of the Pali grammar much more easier and understandable for them.
# The second section
# Rule 432
This Sutta enjoins to apply “paccaya”:
- after the “dhātu-roots” in the case of verbs and kita-nouns structured with roots,
- after “liṅga-gender-specific words” in the case of various kinds of nouns such as plain common nouns, Sabbanāma nouns, Samāsa nouns, Taddhita nouns and Kita nouns.
What are the “paccayas” ? Vibhattis and various Taddhita, Ākhyāta and Kita affixes are called “paccaya”.
Here is how to apply each relevant “paccaya”:
- First, noun-vibhattis (noun case-endings) such as pathamā (nominative case) etc. are to be applied after gender-specific nouns (Samāsa, Taddhita and Kita words are also included as they are classified as nouns).
- Ākhyāta vibhattis such as “ti, anti” and so forth, together with various Ākhyāta affixes are to be applied after the roots of Ākhyāta verbs.
- Kita affixes and noun-vibhattis are to be applied in the Kita-nouns.
- Those Taddhita-affixes and noun-vibhattis are to be applied after Taddhita-nouns according to their respective meanings as prescribed in the relevant Taddhita Suttas.
# Rule 433
The affixes “kha, cha, sa” are sometimes applied after the roots “tija, gupa, kita, māna”. (The applied affixes are shown underlined in the examples)
- titikkhati-(He) forbears, endures, [wa] tija+kha+ti
- jigucchati-(He) detests, [wa] gupa+cha+ti
- tikicchati-(He) treats, cures (a patient by medicine). [wa] kita+cha+ti
- vīmaṃsati-(He) inquires, [wa] māna+sa+ti
In examples shown below, no “kha, cha, sa” affixes are applied to them (roots above)
- tejati-(He) sharpens, [wa] tija+a+ti
- gopati-(He) protects, [wa] gupa+a+ti
- māneti-(He) adores, [wa] māna+a+ti
# Rule 434
The affixes “kha, cha, sa” are sometimes applied after the roots “bhuja, ghasa, hara, su, pā etc.” when expressing a wish (to-infinitive). The verbs applied with affixes are called “tu’micchatta verbs” which means verbs expressive of wish or purpose by hint of a “tum-suffix”. It is also called the desiderative verb.
- bubhukkhati-(He) wants to eat. [wa] bhuja+kha+ti
- jighacchati-(He) wants to eat. [wa] ghasa+cha+ti
- sussusati-(He) wants to hear, [wa] su+sa+ti
- pivāsati-(He) wants to drink, [wa] Pā+sa+ti
The examples shown below are inapplicable
- icchati- (He) wants, [wa] isu+a+ti.
- bhuñjati-(He) eats, [wa] bhuja+a+ti
# Rule 435
An affix “āya” is applied after the noun likened to a doer (kattā-agent), being expressed as a metaphorical analogy.
- pabbatāyati. [wa] pabbata+āya+ti
- samuddāyati. [wa] Samudda+āya+ti
- cicciṭāyati. [wa] cicciṭa+āya+ti
Nāmato-refers to ordinary nouns assuming the role of a root in a verb. All the affixes in Suttas 435, 436, 437 are to be applied after nouns which have a specific meaning. These nouns are also called “Nāma-dhātu-the root-like nouns” and verbs thereof are known as “Nāma-dhātu kiriyā” meaning nominal-stem verbs. The affix of verbs shown in Sutta 435 have usually onomat-opoetic expressions. Such verbs are often found in the Pali texts.
# Rule 436
An affix “īya” is to be applied after a noun which has a meaning of behaving in a specific manner in an analogous expression.
- chattīyati-He treats (a big leave) as if it was like an umbrella, [wa] chatta+īya+ti
- puttīyati-(He) treats (him) like a son (even though not a son), [wa] putta+īya+ti
The example below is inapplicable as it is not expressive of simile.
- ācarati-(he) practices. i.e. He practices Dhamma. [wa] ā+cara+a+ti
The example below is inapplicable as the verb and its meaning meant in sentence is irrelevant to the word “ācāra”
- rakkhati-protects. [wa] rakkha+a+ti
# Rule 437
When expressing wanting something for oneself, an affix “īya” is applied after a noun denoting that thing being wished for.
- pattīyati-(He) wants bowl for himself, [wa] patta+īya+ti
- vatthīyati√He) wants cloth for himself, [wa] vattha+īya+ti
- parikkhārīyati-(He) wants accessories for himself. [wa] parikkhāra+īya+ti
- cīvarīyati-(He) wants robe for himself, [wa] cīvara+īya+ti
- dhanīyati-(He) wants wealth for himself, [wa] dhana+īya+ti
- ghaṭīyati-(He) wants ghee for himself, [wa] ghaṭa+īya+ti
The example below is expressive of wishing for others, not for oneself. So, it is inapplicable.
- patta’micchati. [pattam+icchati]
# Rule 438
When expressing a “prompting causative mode action”, the affixes “ṇe, ṇaya, ṇāpe, ṇāpaya” are applied after the roots of the verb. The affixes thus applied are to be also formally termed as “kārita-the causative affix”.
See all four affixes “ṇe, ṇaya, ṇāpe, ṇāpaya” are applied in each verb. How ever, as the conjoined “ṇ” is to be elided as per morphological procedures, only “e, aya, āpe, āpaya” can be seen in the verbs. Also see the long vowel “ā” in the initial point of the verb which is a result of vuddhi procedure affected by “ṇ” affix).
In other words, (he) prompts (while someone is) doing. This act of prompting or urging results in causative verb expressions such as shown below (Causative verbs in singular, all are of the same meaning)
- kāreti-(he) causes to do, [wa] kara+ṇe+ti
- kārayati-(he) causes to do, [wa] kara+ṇaya+ti
- kārāpeti-(he) causes to do, [wa] kara+ṇāpe+ti
- kārāpayati-(he) causes to do, [wa] kara+ṇāpaya+ti
Note: Kārita-literally means the prompter, i.e. Causative. The affixes applied in the Suttas 438, 439, 452 are called “Kārita paccaya, or causative affixes”. Please note that only those affixes applied through Sutta 438 have a strong sense of “Payojaka Vyāpara-prompting or causative nature” while the rest are only a putative formal term in the nomenclature of Pāli grammar. The conjoining “ṇ” of these affixes is to be elided (Refer to Sutta No. 523) later leaving only component words without “ṇ”. The elision is for initiating necessary procedure of “vuddhi” of the verbs in morphological process. (Refer to Sutta No. 483).
Example of Causative plural verb, using the root “kara-to do”. i.e. Suppose people are doing, (then) other people tell them “do! do!”.
- kārenti-(they) cause to do, [wa] kara+ṇe+anti
- kārayanti-(they) cause to do, [wa] kara+ṇaya+anti
- kārāpenti-(they) cause to do, [wa] kara+ṇāpe+anti
- kārāpayanti-(they) cause to do, [wa] kara+ṇāpaya+anti
The examples below are inapplicable as they have no meaning of “hetu-the prompting”. It is only a statement, a plain verb.
- karoti-(He) does,
- pacati-(He) cooks,
An “ala” affix can be applied after some roots.
- jotalati-(It causes to) shine or (it) shines, [wa] juta+ala+ti
# Rule 439
A “ṇaya” affix is to be added after that noun when it functions like an actual “dhātu-the root”.
- atihatthayati-He passes the road by (riding on an) elephant, [wa] atihatthī+ṇaya+ti,
- upavīṇayati-(He) sings along with (playing) a harp, [wa] upavīṇā+ṇaya+ti
- daḷhayati-(He) makes firm effort, [wa] daḷha+ṇaya+ti
The “āra, āla” affixes can be applied (after nominal stems).
- santārati-(He) makes it calm, [wa] Santa+āra+ti
- upakkamālati-(He) exerts effort, [wa] upakkama+āla+ti
# Rule 440
A “ya” affix is added after all roots when signifying the senses of “Bhāva (impersonal voice)” and “Kamma (passive voice)”.
There are two kinds of ya-affixed verbs. They are:
- (a) The simple “ya-affixed” verbs
- (b) The complex “ya-affixed” verbs augmented with similar or dissimilar syllables.
(a) The first type of verbs are simple and easy to build and to understand as they do not have any complex morphological changes. They are usually structured by simply inserting either a “ya” affix only or putting one more vowel “i” or “ī” in front of “ya”. They are usually one single-stem (one syllable) roots such as “nī” “dā” or ordinary double-stem or multiple-stem roots. [Refer to Sutta Nos. 442, 502]
Example: Single-stem root verbs:
- Nīyati, (no morphological change in this verb except a “ya” affix being inserted between the root “nī” and vibhatti “ti” )
- Dīyati, here, besides inserting “ya” affix, the vowel of the root is changed into an “F’. [Refer to Sutta No.502 to clarify this change]
Multiple-stem root verbs:
- Karīyati, (double-stem root, here, both “ī” and “ya” affixes are inserted. Refer to Sutta No. 442 to understand this function). The examples (1) & (5) below shown in Sutta are such simple type of verbs.
(b) The verb-type “b” is a bit complex as the affix “ya” itself undergoes a word-form change and it is further augmented with either similar word of that changed letter or with a rather dissimilar word. As a result of complex morphologic changes, the affix “ya” becomes invisible in these verbs. [Refer to Suttas 441, 443, 444, 487, 488 for more clarification].
Examples (3) (6) (7) below are augmented with similar words while examples (2) and (4) are augmented with dissimilar words. If one carefully studies the examples below, it will be easy to understand these different structural patterns of ya-affixed verbs. To highlight these unique patterns, all the examples are shown underlined.
- ṭhīyate-act of standing, [wa] ṭhā+ya+te
- bujjhate-act of knowing, (it is) known, [wa] budha+ya+te
- paccate-act of cooking, (It is) cooked, [wa] paca+ya+te
- labbhate-act of obtaining, (it is) obtained, [wa] labha+ya+te
- karīyate-act of doing, (It is) done, [wa] kara+ya+te
- yujjate-act of beating or yoking. (It is) beaten, or is bound. [wa] yudha or yuja+ya+te (2 possible roots)
- uccate-act of speaking, (It is) spoken, [wa] uca+ya+te
Note: There are two types of translations in each example. The first is a “Bhāva translation” while the second signifies “Kamma translation”. In the next sections, only the relevant type of one translation will be shown to avoid redundancy and confusion.
The examples shown below are inapplicable as they have only kattu-voice.
- karoti, [wa] kara+o+ti
- pacati, [wa] paca+a+ti
- paṭhati-(He) recites, [wa] paṭha+a+ti
The verbs affixed with “ya” applied by this Sutta play very important role as passive voice verbs in the Pali texts. (See also Sutta No.447 for a similar kind of “ya” affix. The verbs affixed with it are the active voice verbs)
The “ya” affix applied by this Sutta is distinctive in shaping the verb forms and voice. By carefully learning its characteristics as shown in Suttas 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, the student will understand any verb affixed with “ya”. There are two kinds of “ya”, one being applied by Sutta 440 and one being applied by Sutta 447. Of the two “ya”, The former is of two voices: Kamma (passive) and Bhāva (impersonal) while the latter is only of Kattu (active) voice. Note the distinction of these two “ya” affixes in terms of voice de spite they share similar shapes and structure. In canonical Buddhist texts, the verbs in active and passive voices are widely used while Bhāva voice is sel dom used in sentences except in matters of etymological definition of words.
# Rule 441
That “ya” affix, together with the last component consonant of the root word, changes into “ca-group” consonants or ya or va as per relevant applicability.
- vuccate-(It is) said. sl. [wa] uca, vaca+ya+te
- vuccante-(These) are said, pl. [wa] uca, vaca+ya+ante (two possible roots for both sets of examples in 1 and 2)
- uccate-(It is) said. sl. [wa] uca+ya+te
- uccante-(these) are said. pl. [wa] uca+ya+ante
- paccate-(It is) cooked, sl. [wa] paca+ya+te
- paccante-(Those) are cooked, pl. [wa] paca+ya+ante
In these examples above, the last consonant of the root “c” and the consonant “y” of the affix merged into one single “c” and later augmented with similar “c” and it thus becomes “cca”.
- majjate-(He is) intoxicated or (He is being) massaged, rubbed. sl. [wa] mada or maja+ya+te (the root for 1st meaning),
- majjante, pl. [wa] mada or maja+ya+ante (Note that there are two roots based on different meaning)
- yujjate-(It is) tied, engaged. sl. [wa] yuja+ya+te
- vujjante. pl. [wa] yuja+ya+ante
In the examples above, the last consonant of the root “j” and the affix “y” changed into one single “j” and later augmented with a similar “j”
- bujjhate-(It is) known, sl. [wa] budha+ya+te
- bujjhante. pl. [wa] budha+ya+ante
- kujjhate-(He is) angry, sl. [wa] kudha+ya+te
- kujjhante. pl. [wa] kudha+ya+ante
- ujjhate-(It is) abandoned, or discarded, sl. [wa] udha+ya+te
- ujjhante. pl. [wa] udha+ya+ante
In the examples above, the last consonant of the root “dh” and the affix “y” changed into one single “jh” and later augmented with a dissimilar “j”.
- haññate-(It is) killed, sl. [wa] hana+ya+te
- haññante. pl. [wa] hana+ya+ante
In the example above, the last consonant of the root “n” and the affix “y” changed into one single “ñ” and later augmented with a similar “ñ”.
- kayyate-(It is) done. sl. [wa] kara+ya+te
- kayyante. pl. [wa] kara+ya+ante
In the example above, the last consonant of the root “r” and the affix “y” changed into one single “y” and later augmented with a similar “y”
- dibbate-(It is) shined, sl. [wa] divu+ya+te
- dibbante. pl. [wa] divu+ya+ante
In the example above, the last consonant of the root “v” and the affix “y” changed into one single “b” and later augmented with a similar “b”.
# Rule 442
Either “i or ī” is to be inserted after all roots when a “ya” affix follows (after the root). (Usually in front of “ya” affix).
- karīyate, karīyati-(It is) done, [wa] kara+ya+te (both are the same but the second is a Prassapada-reversed verb)
- gacchīyate, gacchīyati-(It's) gone. [wa] gamu+ya+te (Both are the same)
However, there is no “i or ī” applied in the example below.
- kayyate. [wa] kara+ya+te
Note: Please keep in mind that in each pair of verbs, the first is of Attanopada verb-group while the second verb form is a reversed verb form of Attanopada into Parassapada. However, the voice still remains only in passive mode regardless of change. Of also greatly important is to note that these verb-forms applied by the function of this Sutta are for purely passive voice use only. They are never to be used in the active voice mode like the verbs which share the same morphological procedures prescribed in Sutta 441, 442, 443. They can be used interchangeably either as active or passive voice depending on the sense and voice of affix “ya” in addition to contextual nature of sentence. For example, being in the presence or absence of an Avutta-kattā (i.e. non-principal subject) in a sentence. This means that:
- If the sense and voice of the affix “ya” is Kamma as per Sutta 440, and have a non-principal subject (Avutta-kattā) in the sentence, then it will surely be a passive voice verb.
- If it is a “ya” affix as per Sutta 447 without the presence of an Avutta-kattā (non-principal subject) in the sentence, then it will be an active voice verb.
# Rule 443
A “ya” affix sometimes undergoes a morphological procedure of pubbarūpa, (changing into a consonant similar to the last consonant of the root). (Pubba-of front, the preceding letter of the root. i.e. the last consonant of root+rūpa-shape. i.e. assimilation).
Examples: (example verb 1 and 5 are anomalous verbs.)
- vuḍḍhate-(It is) grown, [wa] vaḍha+ya+te
In the example above, the affix “y” changed into “ḍh”. So it becomes “vaḍh+ḍha+te” [It is still a pubbarūpa, similar syllables]. Later on, the last word of the root has to be changed into a “ḍ” by Sutta 612. The “a” of “va” further changes into an “u” by Sutta 517 bringing the word to completion. (This is an anomalous verb of dissimilar syllables whose morphological procedure is a bit complex for the beginners).
- phallate-(It is) finished or come to fruition. [wa] phala+ya+te
In this example, the affix “y” changed into “l”. [This is a simple pubbarūpa verb of similar syllables]
- dammate-(It is) tamed, [wa] damu+ya+te
In this example, the affix “y” changed into “m”. [This is a simple pubbarūpa verb of similar syllables]
- sakkate-(It is) honored, [wa] saka+ya+te
In this example, the affix “y” changed into “k”. [This is a simple pubbarūpa verb of similar syllables]
- labbhate-(It is) obtained, [wa] labha+ya+te
In this example, the affix “y” changed into “bh”. Later on, the last consonant “bh” of the root is to be changed into “b” by Sutta 20 or 517 [This is an anomalous verb with dissimilar augmentation]
- dissate-(It is) seen, [wa] disa+ya+te
In this example, the affix “y” changed into “s”. [This is a simple pubbarūpa verb of similar syllables or assimilation]
# Rule 444
The morphological procedures on “ya” affix prescribed in previous Suttas are to be similarly applied to “ya” affix (of active voice as prescribed in forthcoming Sutta 447 “Divā’ dito yo”).
Note: This Sutta enjoins that the two functions of Sutta 441, 443 are to be similarly applied on the “ya-affixed verbs” of Sutta 447 too. So, the function of all examples are easily understandable. The only difference is that these verbs are not applicable for the reversal procedure into Parassapada as they themselves are basically of the Parassapadas whose voice is always “active voice”. This is the reason why the verb-ending is only Parassapada “ti”, not “te”. (See the applied-functions in the examples shown underlined.)
These verbs are augmented with dissimilar syllables.
- bujjhati-(He) knows, [wa] budha+ya+ti
- vijjhati-(It) penetrates, (as with a sharp object or by means of sharp intellect) [wa] vidha+ya+ti
These verbs are augmented with similar syllables.
- maññati-(He) knows, [wa] mana+ya+ti
- sibbati-(He) sews, [wa] sivu+ya+ti
# Rule 445
An “a” affix is to be added after the roots “bhū” etc. in the sense of active voice of Kattā (the agent).
- bhavati-(It) becomes, [wa] bhū+a+ti
- paṭhati-(He) recites, [wa] paṭha+a+ti
- pacati-(He) cooks, [wa] paca+a+ti
- jayati-(He) conquers, [wa] ji+a+ti
# Rule 446
An “a” affix is to be added after the root “rudha” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā). Besides, a “niggahita” is also to be put on top of the first component consonant of the root.
Note: That Niggahita later changes into one of “ñ, ñ, ṇ, n, m” based on the next consonant it precedes as prescribed in Sutta 31.
- rundhati-(He) obstructs, [wa] rudha+a+ti
- chindati-(He) cuts, [wa] chida+a+ti
- bhindati-(He) breaks, [wa] bhida+a+t
The “i, ī, e, o” affixes can also be applied while a niggahita is inserted on top of initial letter of the root.
- rundhiti, [wa] rudha+i+ti
- rundhīti, [wa] rudha+ī+ti
- rundheti, [wa] rudha+e+ti
- rundhoti-(he) obstructs, [wa] rudha+o+ti
- sumbhoti-(he) beats, [wa] subha+o+ti
- parisumbhoti-(He) beats, [wa] pari+subha+o+ti
A11 the affixes applied by eight Suttas from 445 to 452 are called “Vikarana paccaya” which means the distinctive affixes. In the word “Vikarana”, vi=means special, to be distinctive, karana-doing, i.e. the affixes that make each verb distinctive. All the Ākhyāta verbs are classified into eight groups based on those eight affixes. They are:
- Bhūvādi gana (bhū-group verbs),
- Rudhādi gana (rudha-group verbs),
- Divādi gana (divu-group verbs),
- Svādi gana (su-group verbs),
- Kīyādi gana (kī-group verbs),
- Gahādi gana (gaha-group verbs),
- Tanādi gana (tanu-group verbs),
- Curādi gana (cura-group verbs).
All verbs of each group are to be used as active voice verbs. As for those “ya-affixed verbs” per Sutta 440, they are to be regarded as the passive voice verbs of those eight groups and other verbs.
# Rule 447
A “ya” affix is to be added after the roots “divu” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā).
- dibbati-(It) shines or (He) plays, [wa] divu+ya+ti
- sibbati-(He) sews, [wa] sivu+ya+ti
- yujjhati-(He) fights or engages, [wa] yuja+ya+ti
- vijjhati-(It) penetrates, [wa] vidha+ya+ti
- bujjhati-(He) knows, [wa] budha+ya+ti.
Note: All the verbs affixed with “ya” applied by this Sutta are the active voice only. The meanings of verb are translated based on the possible meaning of the root.
# Rule 448
The affixes “ṇu, ṇā, uṇā” are added after the roots “su” etc. in the sense of the active voice of Kattā.
Note: The “u” of affix “ṇu” changes in to “o” through vuddhi procedure. There are two verbs with different affixes for each root, but of the same meaning.
- [ṇu] abhisuṇoti, [wa] abhi+su+ṇu+ti
- [ṇā] abhisuṇāti-(he attentively) listens, [wa] abhi+su+ṇā+ti
- [ṇu] saṃvuṇoti, [wa] saṃ+vu+ṇu+ti
- [ṇā] saṃvunāti-(he) protects or prevents. [wa] saṃ+vu+ṇā+ti
- [ṇu] āvuṇoti [wa] ā+vu+ṇu+ti
- [ṇā] āvuṇāti-(he) protects or prevents, [wa] ā+vu+ṇā+ti
- [ṇu] pāpuṇoti, [wa] pa+apa+ṇu+ti.
- [uṇā] pāpuṇāti-(he) reaches, [wa] pa+apa+uṇā+ti.
# Rule 449
A “nā” affix is to be added after the roots “kī” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā).
Note: The “n” of affix “nā” changes into “ṇ” in the first example. “ī” of the root “kī” is sometimes shortened into “i”
- kiṇāti-(he) purchases, [wa] kī+nā+ti.
- jināti-(he) conquers, [wa] ji+nā+ti.
- dhunāti-(it) shakes, [wa] dhu+nā+ti.
- munāti-(he) knows, [wa] muna+nā+ti. (The last “n” of the root is to be elided in this example)
- lunāti-(he) cuts or harvests, [wa] lu+nā+ti.
- punāti-(it) cleanses, [wa] pu+nā+ti.
# Rule 450
The “ppa, ṇhā” affixes are added to the root “gaha” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā).
- gheppati, [wa] gaha+ppa+ti.
- gaṇhāti-(he) takes, [wa] gaha+ṇhā+ti.
# Rule 451
The “o, yira” affixes are added after the roots “tanu” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā).
- tanoti-(it) expands or stretches, [wa] tanu+o+ti.
- tanohi-Expand! (command), [wa] tanu+o+hi.
- karoti-(he) does, [wa] kara+o+ti.
- karohi-Do! (command), [wa] kara+o+hi.
- kayirati-(he) does, [wa] kara+yira+ti.
- kayirāhi-Do! (command), [wa] kara+yira+hi.
# Rule 452
The “ṇe, ṇaya” affixes are added after the roots “cura” etc. in the sense of the active voice (Kattā). Those affixes are also to be formally termed as “kārita”.
Note: Although formally named as “kārita”, these affixes have no nature of “payojaka-vyāpāra-the prompting”. The purpose of naming as “Kārita” is to initiate vuddhi procedure and to serve as distinctive mark of the Curādi-verb-groups.
- coreti, [wa] cura+ṇe+ti.
- corayati-(He) steals, [wa] cura+ṇaya+ti.
- cinteti, [wa] cinta+ṇe+ti.
- cintayati-(He) thinks, [wa] cinta+ṇaya+ti.
- manteti, [wa] manta+ṇe+ti.
- mantayati-(He) consults or speaks, [wa] manta+ṇaya+ti.
# Rule 453
The Vibhattis of “attanopada-group” are in the sense of “bhāva and kamma” voice.
- uccate, uccante, majjate, majjante, yujjate, yujjante, kujjhate, kujjhante, (Refer to Sutta 441)
- labbhate, [wa] labha+ya+te.
- labbhante, [wa] labha+ya+ante. (Refer to Sutta 443)
- kayyate, kayyante. (Refer to Sutta 441)
This Sutta clearly defines the voice of all Attanopada Ākhyāta verbs. When those Ākhyāta verbs in Attanopada vibhatti-termination signify one of these two voices, they used to have a “ya-affix”(per Sutta 440) in them. As such, any sentence structure using those verbs should follow relevant grammatical rules regarding the voices they signify.
# Rule 454
The “attanopada-group” vibhattis can also be in “kattā” the active voice.
- maññate-(he) knows or thinks, [wa] mana+ya+te.
- rocate-(it) shines, [wa] ruca+a+te.
- socate-(he) worries, [wa] suca+a+te.
- bujjhate-(he) knows, [wa] budha+ya+te.
- jāyate-(it) arises, [wa] jana+ya+te. (The last “n” of the root is elided and “a” of the root lengthened)
This Sutta indicates again that the Ākhyāta verbs of Attanopada vibhatti-termination can also sometimes signify Kattu (active) voice. Please do not be confused by injunction of this Sutta. The Ākhyāta verbs in Attanopada vibhatti group signify active voice on condition that the verbs are either be affixed in kattu-voiced affixes or be without it, but no Kamma-voiced affix in them. Otherwise they will be only in passive voice. Studying the examples shown in Sutta will clarify this fact more clearly. Here, examples 1,4,5 are applied with kattu-voiced “ya” affix as per Sutta No. 447, while 2, 3 are applied with a kattu-voiced “a” affix per Sutta No. 445.
# Rule 455
The vibhattis are applied only after the affixes starting with “kha and ending in kārita causative affixes”, formally known as “dhātuniddiṭṭha affixes” have been first applied. Examples, titikkhati, jigucchati, vīmaṃsati, samuddāyati, puttīyati, kāreti, pāceti. (Refer to Sutta 433, 435, 438)
This Sutta enjoins that all the “dhātu-paccaya affixes” are to be applied first after the roots prior to any Akhyāta vibhattis are applied. Normally, in a morphological procedure of an Ākhyāta verb, setting up the root, eliding the last component vowel of the root and then applying relevant Ākhyāta vibhatti are standard procedures. Application of the affixes is next in the order of common procedure. What are “dhātu paccaya” affixes? They are: kha, cha, sa, āya, īya, ṇe, ṇaya, ṇāpe, ṇāpaya, ala, āra and āla. All these affixes are applied through Śuttas 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439. These are also called “dhātu niddiṭṭha affixes”.
# Rule 456
The “prassapada-group vibhattis” are in the sense and voice o f the “kattā (agent or active)”. Examples, karoti, pacati, paṭhati, gacchati (Refer to the preceding Suttas)
This Sutta sets forth the voice of the Ākhyāta verbs in Parassapada group termination as the Kattu (active) voice. Studying the examples carefully will show that they are affixed in Kattu-voiced affixes. This is a consistent rule and morphological pattern being applied in every Ākhyāta verbs of the active voice.
# Rule 457
The root words such as “bhū” and so forth are formally called “dhātu”.
This Sutta formally names the words such as “bhū” etc, as dhātu (the root) of all verbs in the Pali language and its grammar. The roots play greatly important role as the building blocks of verbs and various words. Therefore, studying the roots and their meaning is also an important part of the grammar study. With broader understanding of the roots, one can multi ply different word-structures.
- bhavati-(it) is, it becomes, sl. [wa] bhū+a+ti.
- bhavanti-(they) are, they become, pl. [wa] bhū+a+anti.
- carati-(He) practices or moves, sl. [wa] cara+a+ti.
- caranti, pl. [wa] cara+a+anti.
- pacati-(He) cooks, sl. [wa] paca+a+ti.
- pacanti, pl. [wa] paca+a+anti.
- cintayati-(He) thinks, sl. [wa] cinta+ṇaya+ti.
- cintayanti, pl. [wa] cinta+ṇaya+anti.
- hoti-(lt) is. sl. [wa] hū+a+ti.
- honti, pl. [wa] hū+a+anti.
- gacchati-(He) goes. sl. [wa] gamu+a+ti.
- gacchanti pl. [wa] gamu+a+anti.
# The third section
# Rule 458
The initial consonant of the root is sometimes reduplicated with a similar word of the same vowel.
Note: Due to morphological changes after reduplication procedure, there are some examples which have dissimilar syllables in different forms.
This reduplication procedure is usually applicable only in verbs applied with affixes shown in Suttas 433-434. Other Akhyāta verbs applied with “vikaraṇa” affixes can also be redoubled when they are in Parokkhā vibhatti and in a few other vibhatti-terminations too.
Examples: (Refer to Sutta 433-434 for WA of these examples)
- titikkhati-(he) bears or is patient with.
- jigucchati-(he) detests.
- tikicchati-(he) cures.
- vīmaṃsati-(he) investigates.
- bubhukkhati-(He) wants to eat.
- pivāsati-(He) wants to drink.
- daddallati-(lt) shines, [wa] dala+a+ti.
- dadāti-(He) gives, [wa] dā+a+ti.
- jahāti-(He) abandons, [wa] hā+a+ti.
- caṅkamati-(He) paces up and down, [wa] kamu+a+ti.
“reduplication procedure” is not applied in some examples shown below:
- kampati-(He) trembles, [wa] kapi+a+ti.
- calati-(He) trembles, [wa] cala+a+ti.
# Rule 459
The duplicated initial consonant (as per the previous Sutta) is to be formally named as an “abbhāsa”. Abbhāsa means “something additionally said, i.e. an extra word”, (ā-additionally+bhāsa-said, an extra-word. The initial “ā” is shortened with one dissimilar “b” augmented.)
- dadhāti-(He) carries, [wa] dhā+a+ti.
- dadāti, (Re: Sutta 458)
- babhūva-(It) was. [wa] bhū+a ("a" is a Parokkā vibhatti, not affix)
# Rule 460
The component dīgha vowel of duplicated consonant named as “abbhāsa” is shortened. This Sutta shortens a long vowel of reduplicated “abbhāsa”.
# Rule 461
Those abbhāsa consonants which are dutiya (the second), catuttha (the fourth) in the vagga groups, are to be changed into paṭhama (the first), tatiyā (the third) consonant of vagga groups respectively.
Only by exactly knowing the initial word of the root and its position in the vagga will make the function of this Sutta easily understandable.
Note: dutiya-the second becomes paṭhama (the first), catuttha-the fourth becomes tatiyā (the third).
- ciccheda-(It was) cut. [wa] chida+a (Parokkā vibhatti) (here, the second “cha” changes into the first “c”)
- bubhukkhati, babhūva, (here, the fourth “bha” changes into the third “b”)
- dadhāti-(He) carries. (here, the fourth “dha” changes into the third “d”)
# Rule 462
Those “abbhāsa consonants” belonging to ka-vagga group are to be changed into ca-vagga group consonants.
- cikicchati-(He) cures, [wa] kita+cha+ti. (here, “k” changes into “c”)
- jigucchati-(He) detests, [wa] gupa+cha+ti. (here, “g” changes into “j”)
- jighacchati-(He) wants to eat. [wa] ghasa+cha+ti. [Here, “gha” changes into “j”]
- jigīsati-(He) wants to carry, [wa] hara+sa+ti. [This is an anomalous example. First, the root “hara” changes into “gī” and “g” of it further changes into “j”]
- jaṅgamati-(He) goes, [wa] gamu+a+ti. [Here, “g” changes into “j”]
- caṅkamati. (He) paces up and down, [wa] kamu+a+ti. [Here, “k” changes into “c”]
# Rule 463
Those “abbhāsa consonants m and k” which are part of the roots “māna, kita”, sometimes change into consonants “v” and “t” respectively. (The duplicated abbhāsa m of māna becomes “v” and k of the root kita becomes “t”). Examples, vīmamsati-(He) investigates, tikicchati.
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples: cikicchati (Refer to 462)
# Rule 464
The reduplicated abbhāsa consonant “h” changes into “j”.
- jahāti, [wa] hā+a+ti.
- juhvati-(He) sacrifices, [wa] hu+a+ti.
- juhoti-(He) sacrifices, [wa] hu+a+ti.
- jahāra-(He had) carried, [wa] hara+a (Parokkhā vibhatti, not an affix).
# Rule 465
The component vowels of abbhāsa consonants sometimes changes into “i” or “ī” or “a”.
- Jigucchati, [Here, “u” of “gu” changes into “i”]
- pivāsati, [Here, “ā” of “pā” changes into “i”]
- vĪmaṃsati, [Here, “ā” of “mā” changes into “ī”]
- jighacchati, [Here, “a” of “gha” changes into “i”]
- babhūva, [Here, “ū” of “bhū” changes into “a”]
- dadhāti. [Here, “ā” of “dhā” changes into “a”] [wa shown already]
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples: bubhukkhati-(He) wants to eat
# Rule 466
Sometimes, there has to come a “niggahita” by the end of an abbhāsa consonant, [“by the end of” is a literal translation which means “after”. The applied “niggahita-ṃ” is invisible except its derivative morpheme “ṅ” or “ñ” in its place]
- cañcalati-(He) shakes, [wa] cala+a+ti.
function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples: pivāsati, daddallati
# Rule 467
When “sa” affix follows, the root pā and māna, located after an abbhāsa word, changes into “vā” and maṃ” respectively (this Sutta changes pā into vā and the root māna into maṃ). Examples, pivāsati, vīmaṃsati.
# Rule 468
The root word “ṭhā” sometimes changes into “tiṭṭha”.
- tiṭṭhati-(He) stands, [wa] ṭhā+a+ti.
- tiṭṭhatu-(Let it) stand, [wa] ṭhā+a+tu.
- tiṭṭheyya-(He) should stand, [wa] ṭhā+eyya.
- tiṭṭheyyuṃ-(They) should stand, [wa] ṭhā+eyyuṃ.
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples: ṭhāti-(It) stands, [wa] ṭhā+a+ti.
# Rule 469
The root “pā” sometimes changes into “piva”.
- pivati-(He) drinks, [wa] pā+a+ti.
- pivatu-(Let him) drink, [wa] pā+a+tu.
- piveyya-(He) should drink, [wa] pā+eyya.
- piveyyuṃ. pl. [wa] pā+eyyuṃ.
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples: pāti-(He) drinks, [wa] pā+a+ti.
Note: In Sutta 468, 469, the structures of verbs are so simple that sometimes it may be unnecessary to apply an affix such as “a”. But, some teachers used to hold the strict view that there should be an affix of Kattu sense in it to signify the relevant voice. Even if the affix is applied, it has to be elided by Sutta 510. In WA of examples, some are shown with an affix and some are not. This is a delicate minor grammatical matter. However, the golden rule is that it makes a grammatical sense to have at least one appropriate affix even though without an affix, the applied vibhattis can still signify the voice (Refer to Suttas 453, 456). As such, in cases where the structure of the verb is so simple and does not require any complex morphological procedure, it is still possible for such simple verbs without an affix.
# Rule 470
The root “ñā” sometimes changes into “jā, jaṃ, nā”.
- Jānāti-(He) knows, [wa] ñā+nā+ti.
- jāneyya, jāniyā-(He) should know or he may know,
- jaññā-(He) should know, [wa] ñā+nā+eyya (Please note that jāneyya, jāniyā, jaññā all have the same WA).
- nāyati-(He) knows, [wa] ñā+nā+ti.
- “jā” function is applied only when “nā” affix is applied after the root.
- “jaṃ” function is applied when “ñā” morphological function is present behind (i.e. after this function has been done by Sutta 508)
- “nā” function is applied when changing of affix “nā” into “ya” is done by Sutta 509.
# Rule 471
The root “disa” sometimes changes into “passa, dissa, dakkha”.
- passati, dissati, dakkhati-(He) sees. [wa] disa+a+ti. (All three have the same wa)
- adakkha-(He) saw. [wa] disa+ā (A shortened Hiyyattanī “ā” vibhatti in the verb).
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some instances: addasa-(He) saw. [wa] disa+ā (A shortened Hiyyattanī “ā” vibhatti in the verb).
# Rule 472
The last component consonant of a root changes into “ca” when a “cha” affix follows.
- jigucchati. (Here, the last consonant “p” of the root “gupa” changes into “c”)
- tikicchati. (Here, the last consonant “t” of the root “kita” changes into “c”)
- jighacchati. (Here, the last consonant “s” of the root “ghasa” changes into “c”) [Refer to 434]
# Rule 473
The last component consonant of the root changes into “ka” when a “kha” affix is applied after the root.
- titikkhati. (Here, the last consonant “j” of the root “tija” changes into “k”)
- bubhukkhati. (Here, the last consonant “j” of the root “bhuja” changes into “k”) [Re: 433-434]
# Rule 474
The entire root “hara” changes into “gī” when an affix “sa” is applied after the root.
- jigīsati-(He) wants to carry or to search. [This verb has other root such as “esa-to search”], [wa] hara or esa+sa+ti [Re: 434]
# Rule 475
The root words “brū, bhū” changes into “āha, bhūva” respectively when Parokkhā vibhattis are applied after them. (Brū -> āha. Bhū -> bhūva)
- āha-(He) said. sl. [wa] brū+a (Parokkhā vibhatti.)
- āhu-(They) said. pl. [wa] brū+u (Parokkhā vibhatti)
- babhūva-(It) has been. sl. [wa] bhū+a (Parokkhā vibhatti)
- babhūvu-(they have been) pl. [wa] bhū+u (Parokkhā vibhatti. No affixes)
The example below is not a parokkhā vibhatti. So, it is inapplicable.
- abravuṃ-(they) said, [wa] brū+uṃ (Ajjattanī vibhatti. “a” is in serted in front of the verb by Sutta 519 and meaningless)
# Rule 476
The component consonant “m” of the root “gamu” some times changes into “cch” in verbs of all vibhattis and affixes.
- gacchamāno-(While he is) going, [wa] gamu+“a+māna”+si. This example has two affixes. Those inside the quotation mark “ ” are two affixes.
- gacchanto-(While he is) going, [wa] gamu+anta+si.
In each set of examples below, the second is inapplicable one.
- gacchati - gameti: (He) goes. (In second example, affix “a” becomes “e” by Sutta 510) [wa] gamu+a+ti (Both are Vattamāna vibhatti verbs, same WA).
- gacchatu - gametu: (Let him) go. (Here, “a” becomes “e” by 510) [wa] gamu+a+tu (Both are Pañcamī vibhatti verbs, same WA).
- gaccheyya - gameyya: (He should) go. [wa] gamu+eyya (Both are Sattamī vibhatti verbs, the same WA).
- agacchā - agamā: (He) has gone. [wa] gamu+ā (Both Hiyyattanī vibhatti verbs, the same WA, with no affix).
- agacchī - agamī: (He) has gone. [wa] gamu+ī (Both Ajjattanī vibhatti verbs, the same WA).
- gacchissati - gamissati: (He) will go. [wa] gamu+ssati (Both Bhavissanti vibhatti verbs, same WA).
- agacchissā - agamissā: (He might have) gone (actually he didn’t). [wa] gamu+ssā (Both Kālātipatti vibhatti verbs, same WA).
The example below is not of the root “gamu”, but the other root word “isu”. So it is inapplicable.
- icchati-(He) wants, [wa] isu+a+ti.
# Rule 477
The initial component vowel of the root “vaca” changes into “o” when an Ajjattanī vibhatti is applied after the root.
- avoca-(He) said. sl. [wa] vaca+ā (AjjatanT attanopada vibhatti verb).
- avocuṃ-(They) said. pl. [wa] vaca+uṃ (Ajjattanī parassapada verb).
Examples below are not of “ajjattanī”, but of “Hiyyattanī”. So, they are inapplicable.
- avaca-(He) said. sl. [wa] vaca+ā [vibhatti “ā” is shortened]
- avacū-(they) said. pl. [wa] vaca+ū
# Rule 478
When “hi, mi, ma” vibhattis are applied in a verb, the vowel before them is to be made into a dīgha (i.e. lengthened). “mhe” vibhatti is also applicable for the function of this Sutta.
- gacchāhi-(You) go. [wa] gamu+a+hi
- gacchāmi-(I) go. [wa] gamu+a+mi
- gacchāma-(We) go. [wa] gamu+a+ma
- gacchāmhe-(We) go. [wa] gamu+a+mhe
The dīgha procedure is inapplicable in some words (even if “hi” is applied).
- gacchahi-(You) go. [wa] gamu+a+hi
# Rule 479
The “hi” vibhatti (belonging to pañcamī vibhatti group) is sometimes elided.
Examples: (only the first is applied example. The second is inapplicable in each set.)
- gaccha - gacchāhi: (You) go. [wa] gamu+a+hi
- gama - gamāhi: (You) go. [wa] gamu+a+hi (wa of both set of examples are the same)
- gamaya - gamayāhi: (You causes to) go. (You prompt him to go. Causative verbs), [wa] gamu+ṇaya+hi
Examples shown below are not of “hi”, but of “ti”. So they are inapplicable.
- gacchati-(He) goes, [wa] gamu+a+ti
- gamayati-(He causes to) go. [wa] gamu+ṇaya+ti
# Rule 480
The component vowel “ū” of the root word “hū” sometimes changes into “eha, oha, e” when bhavissanti vibhatti is applied after the root. Besides, the component consonants “ss” of the vibhatti are also elided. (two functions)
In three set of examples below, all two functions are applied.
- hehiti-(It) will be. [wa] hū+ssati
- hehinti-(They) will be. pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
- hohiti. [wa] hū+ssati
- hohinti, pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
- heti, [wa] hū+ssati
- henti, pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
In three set of examples below, only the first function is applied. Eliding of “ss”, the second function, is not applied.
- hehissati, [wa] hū+ssati
- hehissanti, pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
- hohissati, [wa] hū+ssati
- hohissanti, pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
- hessati, [wa] hū+ssati
- hessanti, pl. [wa] hū+ssanti
Note: No affix in these examples though there can be an “a” affix applicable. There will be an “i” to be inserted before vibhatti which renders any extra vowel unnecessary to complete the word.
The examples below are not of the root word “hū”, but of “bhū”. So, they are inapplicable.
- bhavissati-(lt) will be. [wa] bhū+ssati
- bhavissanti-(they) will be. pl. [wa] bhū+ssanti
The example below is not of “bhavissanti”, but of “vattamānā-ti”. So, it is inapplicable.
- hoti-(It) is. [wa] hū+a+ti
# Rule 481
When a bhavissanti is applied, the root “kara”, along with the component consonant “ss” of the applied vibhatti, sometimes changes into “kāha”. Besides, the component consonants “ss” of the vibhatti are always elided.
- kāhati, kāhiti-(He) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssati (Both are the same)
- kāhasi, kāhisi-(You) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssasi (Both are the same)
- kāhāmi-(I) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssāmi
- kāhāma-(We) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssāma
Function of this Sutta is not always applied in some examples shown below:
- karissati-(He) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssati
- karissanti-(They) will do. [wa] kara+a+ssanti
The “ssāmi, ssāma” of bhavissanti vibhatti applied after other roots, can also change into “khāmi, khāma, chāmi, chāma” respectively.
- The last consonant “c” of the root changes into “k” by Sutta 473 in these examples and later combined it to next “kh”.
- vakkhāmi-(l) will say. [wa] vaca+a+ssāmi
- vakkhāma-(We) will say. [wa] vaca+a+ssāma
- The last consonant “s” of the root changes into “c” by Sutta 472 in these examples. It is later combined to next “ch” to become a complete word.
- vacchāmi-(l) will stay, [wa] vasa+a+ssāmi
- vacchāma-(We) will stay, [wa] vasa+a+ssāma
# The fourth section
# Rule 482
The component vowel “ā” of the root “dā” changes into “aṃ” when “mi, ma” vibhattis are applied after it.
- dammi-(I) give, [wa] dā+mi
- damma-(We) give, [wa] dā+ma
Note: The applied “ṃ” becomes ordinary “m” by the rule of sutta 31.
# Rule 483
The component vowel of non-conjunct root undergoes the process of “vuddhi” in verbs where causative affixes are applied after them.
- kāreti-(He) causes to do, kārenti-(They) cause to do.
- kārayati, kārayanti,
- kārāpeti, kārāpenti,
- kārāpayati, kārāpayanti. [Refer to Sutta 438]
The examples shown below are not “asaṃyoganta-single consonant words”, but “saṃyoganta-conjunct-consonants words”. So, they are inapplicable.
- cintayati-(he) thinks.
- mantayati-(he) consults or calls. [Refer to Sutta 452]
- Vuddhi means an increase in the metrical nature of the word. Through this procedure, “a" changes into “ā”, “i” changes into “ī”, “u” changes into “ū”. This may seems like similar to “dīgha-the lengthening process” of rassa i.e. short vowels. But it is somewhat different in terms of how it takes place. In addition, “i” and “ī” changes into “e”, while “u & ū” changes into “o”. This process of morphing into another different vowel form is called “vuddhi”. Furthermore, “e” becomes either “aya” or “āya” while “o” also becomes “ava” or “āva” by means of another follow-up procedure called “anuvuddhi” (anu-means following, i.e. a follow-up procedure after vuddhi has been applied in some words). All three Suttas from 483, 484, 485, perform vuddhi function. Only 483-485 have a wider application while Sutta 484 is confined to only a few roots in its function.
- “Asaṃyoganta” means ending in non-conjunct. [A-not, saṃyoga-being well-joined in a cluster of words, i.e. conjunct, anta-ending] The conjunct-consonants are clearly noticeable in the oriental Asian scripts which used to be written in vertical order in the languages such as Devanāgari and Burmese etc. In the Romanized Pali which used to be written in horizontal mode, it may not be easily noticeable. However, when double, vowel-less consonants of similar or dissimilar shape are present in the root, it can be easily assumed as “saṃyoganta dhātu (the conjunct-ending root)”
# Rule 484
The component vowel of the non-conjunct root “ghaṭa” etc. sometimes undergoes the process of “vuddhi” when followed by a causative affix. (the second example in each pair is inapplicable)
- ghāṭeti - ghaṭeti-(He) causes to make effort, [wa] ghaṭa+ṇe+ti
- ghāṭayati - ghaṭayati. [wa] ghaṭa+ṇaya+ti
- ghāṭāpeti - ghaṭāpeti. [wa] ghaṭa+ṇāpe+ti
- ghāṭāpayati - ghaṭāpayati. [wa] ghaṭa+ṇāpaya+ti
- gāmeti - gameti-(He) causes to go. [wa] gamu+ṇe+ti
- gāmayati - gamayati. [wa] gamu+ṇaya+ti
- gāmāpeti - gamāpeti. [wa] gamu+ṇāpe+ti
- gāmāpayati - gamāpayati. [wa] gamu+ṇāpaya+ti
The example below is inapplicable as it is not the root “ghaṭa”, but “kara”. It is kāreti.
# Rule 485
The component vowel of non-conjunct roots usually undergoes the process of “vuddhi” in verbs when other non-causative affixes and vibhattis follow.
- jayati-(He) conquers.
- hoti, [wa] hū+a+ti
- bhavati. [Refer to Sutta 445]
The affix “nu” can become a vuddhi, (i.e. the component vowel “u” of the affix changes into “o”.)
- abhisuṇoti-(He) listens. [Refer to Sutta 448]
# Rule 486
The component vowel “u” of root words “guha, dusa” changes into a dīgha “ū” when causative affixes are applied after them.
- gūhayati-(It) causes to protect, hides, [wa] guha+ṇaya+ti
- dūsayati-(he) causes to spoil, [wa] dusa+ṇaya+ti
# Rule 487
The component vowel “a” and sometimes consonant “v” of the roots “vaca, vasa, vaha” changes into “u” when a “ya” affix follows, (i.e. is present in the verb).
Note: Two ways of changing into “u”: in the first example, the whole “va” changes into “u”. In the rest, only “a” of “va” changes into “u”.
- uccate, [wa] vaca+ya+te [Here, “va” changes into “u”]
- vuccati, [wa] vaca+ya+te [Refer to Sutta 441, both are the same]
- vussati-(has) stayed, [wa] vasa+ya+te
- vuyhati-(It is) carried away (as in river currents). [wa] vaha+ya+te
# Rule 488
In the roots such as “vaha” etc. with “ya” affix being applied after it, the consonants “h (of the root)” and “y (of the affix)” are to be reversed in their positions (i.e. y of the affix “ya” moved to front. Hence, it looks like “yha”). In addition, “ya” changes into “la” in some instances of verbs.
Vipariyāya means reversing the position of two letters from back to forth and vice versa. It is one form of grammatical procedure in the morphology.
- vuyhati-(It is) carried away (as by river currents, same meaning). [wa] vaha+ya+te
Note: In first example, the affix “y” becomes “l” after reversal. In the second, only “h” and “y” are reversed.
# Rule 489
The entire root “gaha” changes into “ghe” when the affix “ppa” is applied after the root. For example, gheppati-(he) takes. [Refer to Sutta 450]
# Rule 490
The consonant “ha” of the root word “gaha” is elided when the affix “ṇhā” follows it. (See only “ga” with the elided “ha” of the root “gaha” no longer visible)
- gaṇhāti-(he) takes. [Refer to Sutta 450]
# Rule 491
The entire root word “kara” sometimes changes into “kāsa” in verbs when an ajjattanī vibhatti is applied.
- akāsi-(he) did. [wa] kara+ī
- akāsuṃ-(thev) did. [wa] kara+uṃ
- akari-(he) did. [wa] kara+ī
- akaruṃ-(they) did. [wa] kara+uṃ (These are inapplicable examples)
An “s” is to be inserted (before the vibhatti) applied after other roots rather than the root “kara”. [The vibhatti “ī” is shortened]
- ahosi-(It) was. [wa] hū+ī
- adāsi-(he) gave, [wa] dā+ī
# Rule 492
The vibhattis “mi, ma” applied after the root word “asa” sometimes changes into “mhi, mha” respectively. In addition, the component consonant “s” of the root is also elided.
- amhi-(i) am. [wa] asa+mi
- amha-(we) are. [wa] asa+ma
- asmi-(I) am. [wa] asa+mi
- asma-(we) are. [wa] asa+ma
# Rule 493
The vibhatti “tha” applied after the root word “asa” some times changes into “ttha”. Besides, the component consonant “s” of the root is also elided.
- attha-(you, pl) are. [wa] asa+tha
# Rule 494
The vibhatti “ti” applied after the root word “asa” some times changes into “tthi”. Besides, the component conso nant “s” of the root is also elided.
- atthi-(There) is. [wa] asa+ti
# Rule 495
The vibhatti “tu” applied after the root “asa” sometimes changes into “tthu” . In addition, the component consonant “s” of the root is also elided.
- atthu-(Let it) be, (may) it be. [wa] asa+tu
# Rule 496
The component consonant “s” of the root word “asa” is elided when “si” vibhatti is applied after the root. (The applied function is understandable only through morphological procedure.)
Note: “nu” is a nipāta particle equal to a question mark “?”. It is used to be syntactically related to the verb. Here, it is related to the verb “asi+nu” which can be translated as “are you?”.
For example: ko nu tva’masi mārisa? (Friend, who are you?)
- ko-who, nu-?
- tva’masi [tvam+asi] tvam-you, asi-(you) are.
- mārisa-friend, [wa] asa+si
# Rule 497
The ajjattanī vibhattis “ī, iṃ” applied after the root “labha” respectively changes into “ttha, tthaṃ”. Additionally, the component consonant “bh” of the root is also elided.
- alattha-(he) got, obtained, [wa] labha+ī
- alatthaṃ-(I) got, obtained, [wa] labha+iṃ
# Rule 498
The ajjattanī vibhatti “ī” applied after the root word “kusa” changes into “cchi” and the component consonant “sa” of the root is also elided.
- akkocchi-(He) reviled (by saying abusive words etc). [wa] kusa+ī
# Rule 499
The whole “dā” of the root “dā” sometimes changes into “dajja”.
- dajjāmi-(l) give, [wa] dā+a+mi
- dajjeyya-(he) should give, [wa] dā+eyya
# Rule 500
The entire root “vada” sometimes changes into “vajja”.
• vajjāmi-(I) say. [wa] vada+a+mi • vajjeyya-(he) should say. [wa] vada+eyya
These are inapplicable.
- vadāmi-(I) say. [wa] vada+a+mi
- vadeyya-(he) should say. [wa] vada+eyya
# Rule 501
The entire root “gamu” sometimes changes into “ghamma”.
- ghammatu-(let him) go. [wa] gamu+a+tu
- ghammāhi-(you) go. [wa] gamu+a+hi
- ghammāmi-(I) go. [wa] gamu+a+mi
Note: These ghamma-function applied verbs are seldom found in the canonical texts.
The function of Sutta is not applied in the examples below.
- gacchatu-(let him) go.
- gacchāhi-(you) go.
- gacchāmi-(I) go. [WA as shown above]
# Rule 502
The component vowel of the roots “dā, dhā, mā, ṭhā, hā, pā, maha, matha” etc, changes into “ī” when a “ya” affix is applied after the roots. This affix is applicable by Sutta 440 only, not by 447. As such, these verbs are only in Kamma, Bhāva senses and voices. However, verbs of active voice prefixed with some upasagga and structured in this pattern are sometimes found in the Pali texts, e.g. Ohīyati-(he) loses. Nilīyati-(he) hides. Pidhīyati-(It) blocks)
- dīyati-(It is) given, [wa] dā+ya+te
- dhīyati-(It is) carried, [wa] dhā+ya+te
- mīyati-(It is) measured, [wa] mā+ya+te
- ṭhīyati-(It is) stood, [wa] ṭhā+ya+te
- hīyati-(It is) abandoned, [wa] hā+ya+te
- pīyati-(It is) drunk, [wa] pā+ya+te
- mahīyati-(It is) honored, [wa] maha+ya+te
- mathīyati-(It is) churned, [wa] matha+ya+te
# Rule 503
The initial “ya” of the root word “yaja” changes into “i” when a “ya” affix is applied after it. (one “j” is augmented)
- ijjate-(is) worshiped, [wa] yaja+ya+te
# Rule 504
An ajjattanī vibhatti “uṃ” applied after the roots of all verbs, changes into “iṃsu”.
- upasaṅkamiṃsu-(they) approached, came near. [wa] upa+saṃ+kamu+uṃ.
- nisīdiṃsu-(they) sat. [wa] ni+sada+uṃ.
# Rule 505
The root words “jara, mara” sometimes changes into “jīra, jiyya, miyya”.
Note: The root “jara” changes into “jīra, jiyya” and the root “mara” changes into “miyya”.
- jīrati-(he) gets old. [wa] jara+a+ti.
- jīranti-(they) get old. [wa] jara+a+anti.
- jiyyati-(he) gets old.
- jiyyanti-(they) get old [WA same as before]
- miyyati-(he) dies, [wa] mara+a+ti.
- miyyanti-(they) die. [wa] mara+a+anti.
These two examples are inapplicable
- marati-(he) dies.
- maranti-(they) die.
# Rule 506
In instances of all vibhattis and affixes, the initial vowel “a” of the root “asa” is sometimes elided. The function is clearly noticeable as there is no more “a” of the root “asa”. These examples are widely found in the Pāli texts.
- siyā-(lt) should be. [wa] asa+eyya.
- santi-(There) are. [wa] asa+a+anti.
- sante-(while it) is being, that being so. kv. [wa] asa+anta+smiṃ [smiṃ became “e”].
- samāno-(while it) is, if being so. kv. [wa] asa+“a+māna”+si [si became “o”].
Note: Both Sante and Samāno are auxiliary Kita-verbs with multiple uses. They are frequently used as present participle or cls or adv or adj.
The function of Sutta is not applied for:
- asi-(you) are. [wa] asa+si. (See Sutta 496)
# Rule 507
The whole root “asa” sometimes changes into “bhū” in verbs where asabbadhātuka vibhattis are applied. (The applied function can be seen in the same form of verbs structured with the root “bhū”. This is the only injunction in the grammar where a root is changed into the verb-form of the other root “bhū” in instances of verbs with Asabbadhātuka-terminations.)
- bhavissati-(it) will be. [wa] asa+a+ssati.
- bhavissanti-(they) will be. [wa] asa+a+ssanti.
The function of Sutta is not applied for:
- āsuṃ-(they) were, [wa] asa+uṃ.
# Rule 508
A Sattamī vibhatti “eyya” applied after the root word “ñā” sometimes changes into “iyā, ñā”.
• jāniyā, jaññā-(he) should know or it should be known. (One “ñ” is augmented in the second example. Refer to Sutta 470)
The function of Sutta is not applied in the example below:
- jāneyya-(he) should know. [Refer to Sutta 470]
# Rule 509
The affix “nā” applied after the root word “ñā” is elided. Sometimes, the affix “nā” changes into “ya”. [Two functions, one function for each example below]
- jaññā-(He) should know. [Eliding of affix “nā” is applied]
- nāyati-(He) knows. [Changing of the affix “nā” into “ya” is applied. Refer to Sutta 470]
The function of Sutta is not applied for:
- jānāti-(he) knows.
# Rule 510
The affix “a” (per Sutta 445) is sometimes either elided or if unelided, it changes into an “e”. This Sutta changes the affix “a” into “e” sometimes or elides it in most cases of “Bhū-group” verbs.
• vajjemi, vademi-(I) say. [Here, “a” changes into “e”] • vajjāmi, vadāmi-(I) say. [Here, “a” is lengthened into “ā”], [wa] vada+a+mi [Refer to Sutta 500]
# Rule 511
The affix “o” applied after the root word “kara” sometimes changes into “u”. The second example is inapplicable one
- kurute-(He) does, [wa] kara+o+te.
- karoti-(He) does, [wa] kara+o+ti.
Here “o” means an affix, not a “vuddhi morpheme o” as shown in the example below. Hence, it is inapplicable here.
- hoti. [wa] hū+a+ti.
# Rule 512
The component vowel “a” of “ka” in the root word “kara”, sometimes changes into “u”.
- kurute, karoti. [WA shown in the preceding Sutta]
- kubbanti-(they) do. [wa] kara+o+anti.
Note: Morphological procedure of the second example above:
- Change the affix “o” into “u” by 511 [kar+u+anti].
- Change a of kar into u by this 512 [kur+u+anti]
- Delete “r” by 517 [ku+u+anti].
- Change the second “u” into “v” by 18 [ku+v+anti].
- Add one more “v” by 28 [ku+w+anti].
- Change “vv” into “bb” by “ca” of 20 [kubbanti].
- kayirati-(he) does, [wa] kara+yira+ti.
The examples below are not of the root “kara”, but of the root “sara & mara”. So, they are inapplicable.
- sarati-(he) remembers, [wa] sara+a+ti.
- marati-(he) dies, [wa] mara+a+ti.
# Rule 513
A vuddhi morpheme “o” (of root words such as “cu, bhū” etc.) changes into “ava” when a vowel follows it (“a vowel follows it” here means the affix “a”).
Note: “o” is a morpheme derivative of vuddhi procedure performed on “u-ū” of the roots “cu, bhū”.
- cavati-(If) moves or dies, [wa] cu+a+ti.
- bhavati-(If) is. [wa] bhū+a+ti.
In the example below, there is no “o”, but only a vuddhi morpheme “e”, So it is inapplicable here.
- jayati-(he) conquers, [wa] ji+a+ti.
# Rule 514
A vuddhi morpheme “e” (of root words such as “nī, ji” etc) changes into “aya” when a vowel follows. (i.e. present behind in a verb)
Note: “o” is a morpheme derivative of vuddhi procedure performed on “i-ī” of the roots “ji and nī “.
- nayati-(he) carries, [wa] nī+a+ti.
- jayati. [wa] ji+a+ti.
# Rule 515
Those vowels “o” and “e” respectively change into “āva” and “āya” when a causative affix follows.
Note: “o” and “e” are morpheme derivatives of vuddhi procedure performed on “ū-ī” of the roots “lū” and “nī”.
- lāveti-(he) causes to cut. [wa] lū+ṇe+ti.
- nāyeti-(he) causes to carry, [wa] nī+ṇe+ti.
The component vowel “e” changes into “āya” in verbs where a non-causative affix is applied.
- gāyati-(he) sings, [wa] ge+a+ti.
- gāyanti-(they) sing, [wa] ge+a+anti.
Note: A yogavibhāga means splitting Sutta without the word “kārite”. So, in this split-Sutta function, the word Kārite is excluded. [yoga=Sutta, vibhāga=splitting]
# Rule 516
In verbs with asabbadhātuka vibhatti-terminations, there should come an “i” after the last consonant of the root and be joined to it.
- gamissati-(He) will go. [wa] gamu+ssati.
- karissati-(He) will do. [wa] kara+ssati.
- labhissati-(He) will obtain, [wa] labha+ssati.
- pacissati-(He) will cook, [wa] paca+ssati.
The vibhattis in the examples below do not belong to “asabbadhātuka” group, the function is therefore not applied.
- gacchati-(He) goes.
- karoti-(He) does. [WA shown already]
- labhati-(He) obtains, [wa] labha+a+ti.
- pacati-(He) cooks, [wa] paca+a+ti.
This Sutta enjoins to mark a very definitive form of Ākhyāta verbs in the asabbadhātuka vibhatti-terminations by requiring an “i” to be inserted after the root and to attach that vowel to the last consonant of the root.
# Rule 517
All the necessary morphological procedures such as dīgha, viparīta, ādesa, lopa and āgama which conforms to usage in Buddhist texts, can be occasionally performed as necessary for verbs of all roots, vibhattis and affixes whose morphological procedures were not explained in this Ākhyāta section.
- jāyati-(lt) boms, arises, [wa] jana+a+ti.
- kareyya-(He) should do. [wa] kara+o+eyya. [“o” affix is elided by this Sutta.]
- jāniyā-(It) should be known. [For wa, re: 508]
- siyā-(It) is or it should be. [For wa, Re: 506]
- kare-(He) should do. [wa] kara+eyya
- gacche-(He) should go. [wa] gamu+eyya. [“eyya” is substituted with “e” by this Sutta in examples 5 and 6.]
- jaññā-(He) should know or (it) should be known. [Re: 508]
- vakkhetha-(You) should say.pl. [wa] vaca+tha. [Component word “ca” of the root changed into “khe” by this Sutta]
- dakkhetha-(You) should see .pl. [wa] disa+tha. [Component word “sa” of the root changed into “khe” by this Sutta and “i” of the root “disa” changed into “a”]
- dicchati-(He) sees, [wa] disa+ti. [Component word “sa” of the root changed into “ccha” by this Sutta]
- agacchi-(He) went, [wa] gamu+ī. (Ajjattanī) [The “ī” shortened into “i” by this Sutta. Also refer to 476, 519]
- agacchuṃ-(They) went, [wa] gamu+uṃ. [Re: 476, 519]
- ahosi-(lt) was. [wa] hū+ī [“ī” changed into “si” by this Sutta]
- ahesuṃ-(They) were, [wa] hū+uṃ.
This is one of mahāvisaya Suttas in this grammar [mahā-great+visaya-domain of influence in affecting various morphological procedures].
There are four Mahā-visaya Suttas, they are:
(1) Tesu Vuddhi (Sutta No. 404) (2) Kvaci dhātu (Sutta No. 517) (3) Paccayā’danitthā (Sutta No. 571) (4) Ya’danuppannā (Sutta No. 391).
The role of a mahāvisaya Sutta is to invoke the power of any necessary morphological procedure required for the completion of a word whose procedures are not directly mentioned through injunction of a specific Sutta in the grammatical text. This grammatical concept of having such Suttas is one unique as pect of the Pāli grammar to allow any applicable morphological procedure for any word not shown in the grammar text.
# Rule 518
Sometimes, the Attanopada vibhattis assume the physical mode of Prassapada vibhattis (except in terms of actual voice.)
This means that they can take physical appearance of the Parassapada vibhattis by having all six prassapada-terminations at the end of verbs as if they are Prassapada. However, the voice still remains in passive voice. Sometimes it is referred to as reversal of Attanopada vibhattis into Parassapada vibhattis. Actually, they are reversed from Attanopada verb-ending “te” to “ti”. Therefore, in WA, it has to be shown as “te” to represent its true Vibhatti.
- vuccati-(It is) said, [wa] vaca+ya+te.
- labbhati-(It is) obtained, [wa] labha+ya+te.
- paccati-(It is) cooked, [wa] paca+ya+te.
The function of Sutta is not applied in some examples shown below. (Hence, Attanopada verb-ending “te” remains without being reversed).
- karīyate-(is) done, [wa] kara+ya+te.
- labbhate-(is) obtained, [wa] labha+ya+te.
- paccate-(is) cooked, [wa] paca+ya+te.
# Rule 519
In verbs with Hiyyattanī, Ajjatanī, Kālātipatti vibhatti-terminations, there should sometimes come an “a” and be inserted at the initial point of such verbs.
The function of this Sutta clearly marks a salient form of Ākhyāta verbs in Hiyyattanī, Ajjatanī, Kālātipatti vibhatti-terminations by requiring an “a” to be placed before the verbs. However, this function is not a consistent feature. Sometimes there are verbs without an “a” being applied before them. See the examples of “kvaci” to clarify this. Note that this “a” has no meaning at all except to denote the past of action as implied by the verb.
- agamā-(he) went, [wa] gamu+ā.
- agamī-(he) went, [wa] gamu+ī
- agamissā-(he) might have gone (but did not), [wa] gamu+ssā.
The function of Sutta is not applied in some examples shown below though they are in Hiyyattanī, Ajjatanī, Kālātipatti vibhattis. (The same meaning and wa as those preceding three examples shown in this Sutta)
# Rule 520
There should come an “ī” after the root word “brū” when a “ti” vibhatti is applied.
- bravīti-(he) says, [wa] brū+a+ti
Note: In the example, the vowel “ū” of “brū” changes into “o” through vuddhi process and it further changes into “av” and “ī” is then inserted by this Sutta.
# Rule 521
The last component vowel of the multiple-stem roots having multiple-vowels, is usually elided except a few roots.
Note: This Sutta deletes the last vowel in multi-stem roots as a basic morphological standard procedure before other procedures are performed.
- gacchati-(he) goes.
- sarati-(he) remembers.
- marati-(he) dies.
The function of Sutta is not applied in the examples shown below as they are of single-vowel, one letter (single-stem) roots.
- pāti-(he) drinks, [wa] pā+a+ti.
- yāti-(he) goes, [wa] yā+a+ti.
- vāti-(It) goes, [wa] vā+a+ti.
The function of Sutta is not applied in some examples as those shown below even though they are multiple-stem roots.
- mahīyati-(is) honored, [wa] maha+ya+te.
- mathīyati-(is) churned, [wa] matha+ya+te.
When carrying out the morphological procedures, the function of this Sutta is usually applied in almost all Ākhyāta and Kita verbs except some verbs such as single-stem roots and some two or multiple-stem roots like those shown as restricted.
# Rule 522
The last component consonants “s” and “m” of the roots “isu, yamu” sometimes changes into “cch”.
- icchati-(he) wants. (Here, “s” becomes “cch”) [wa] isu+a+ti.
- niyacchati-(he) abstains, restrains. (Here, “m” becomes “cch”.) [wa] ni-yamu+a+ti.
The function of Sutta is not applied in some examples shown below.
- esati-(he) wants or searches, “e” is vuddhi-vowel of “i” in the root “isu-to want, to search for”, [wa] isu+a+ti.
- niyamati-(he) abstains, [wa] ni+yamu+a+ti.
# Rule 523
The “ṇ” of all causative affixes called “kārita” is (always) to be elided.
“ṇ” means those causative affixes which has an “ṇ” in them. They are: ṇe, ṇaya, ṇape, ṇāpaya. See Sutta No. 438,452.
When these affixes are applied after the root in a verb, “ṇ” has to be elided, only component vowels such as e, aya, āpe, āpaya will be left. Then vuddhi procedure is usually performed either in the initial or the middle vowel of the verb. The purpose of eliding by this Sutta is to enable vuddhi process and thereby leading to completion of the word.
- kārāpayati.(Refer to Sutta 438)